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Developmental Psychology


a. Illustration of developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is a branch of psychology. In science, the study of the stages of a person's development until it reaches a certain stage. Especially, the development of a child.

Parents should understand and recognize the concepts contained in these developmental psychology. The goal is to find the right methods in guiding their children to grow up healthily. Both in terms of physical growth and mental growth primarily is to guide them.

This is because the age of the child is the most vulnerable period in the formation of character and personality. This condition is related to the phase in which the age, they will try to get all sorts of information that is all around them. Whether it comes from formal environments, such as home or school or outside of that environment.


b. What is Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of the development of age-based behavior change. Historically, the term has been used exclusively to refer to the development of children's behavior, but actually observing developmental psychologist studying people of all ages, since the behavior of the uterus to look at death. The researchers in this field to apply their expertise to the treatment of children with psychological disorders, psychological problems related to the analysis of criminal cases, education, care of the elderly, and a number of other situations.

The researchers in this field mainly gather evidence through observation, each study adds to the body of the material with the overall developmental psychology. Experimentation in controlled circumstances can be used by several researchers, but the focus is most often used, observing humans in a natural environment with an approach that is named as a phenomenological study, and learn about the ways of development menta someone who can be influenced or changed. Since many experiments involving environmental manipulation may involve unethical methods such as subjecting children to lack the sense or baby malnoutrising to determine the role of diet in the development of the baby, observation is often the only way to gather data on developmental psychology.

Similarly developmental psychologist interested in the development of emotional, intellectual, and moral human beings throughout their lifespan, see everything and take note of the first babies respond to certain stimuli with behavioral changes that occur in the elderly with the nature of a certain age (or aging, aging ). Developmental psychology is also concerned with the physical and social development, such as the age at which boys and girls begin to differentiate between each other, or the dynamics of middle-aged adults. They also studied the man in the womb, especially in the final phase of pregnancy when the fetus appears to be involved in a conscious act. And for writing this, it seems more refined in developmental psychology variants, namely the child's education.


c. Child Education

Children's education, is one of the developmental psychology concerned with the identical age children where they will spend most of their time to play. This is one phase of a child to begin to interact with the outside world. In this phase, a child will learn about how to get along, act and show their achievements.

Here the role of parents is very important in guiding their children to choose a partner for their son play. Because, if one child get a friend to play will have an impact on the negative behavior of the child. Nevertheless, there should be an elegant approach so that the child does not feel constrained in their relationships.

One way to do this is to communicate with the child. Parents can start by asking the children about their playmates. As the friend's name and ask the reason why the children want to play with her friend.

From here, a child would name their colleagues who are considered most able to give comfort to play. So parents can then draw conclusions about some things perilah them is child's play. ie could find out who the child is considered popular and who is unpopular in the play of the child.


From this information, we can categorize child's play into four classifications. The four are:

1. Children who feature sosiometris Within these groups, usually filled by children who have a positive attitude dominant. While negative attitudes they owned very little, even less likely to exist. Thus, children in this category will be the center of attention for their playmates and a role model.

2. Regular children's group is not very popular in comparison to children who are in sosiometris star. However, this group contains children more widely known than the positive side than the negative side.

3. Child isolated group contains children who do not have anything that stands out. So that both positive and negative sides will not be visible in the association they do.

4. They are the alienated kid who shunned by colleagues sepermainannya. Therefore, children in this group tend to be more pronounced than the negative side. As a result, many children do not feel comfortable to hang out with kids who categorized the group entry.

Important Factors Children's Social Status

1. Education at Home A child who is accustomed to dialogue with his parents and given a chance to express his thoughts, tend to grow into a child who is full of confidence. As with their students by way of loud, rude and did not have a chance to speak. Such children this will grow into a humble child, do not have the confidence and have a great sense of trauma. So that their potential will not appear optimal.

2. The order of birth of a child who has the youngest age are usually more popular than his brothers. This is because the youngest child has more ability to negotiate and communicate better than their other siblings.

3. Taking the role of Children's Skills and quite popular in sosiometris star, tend to have the ability to be able to put yourself in any condition. One of them is because there are children in this group have a level of intelligence above average friends. So that they will easily adjust to when in a new environment or foreign.

4. Name A child who has a name with connotations of something, usually tend to feel inferior. This is especially if their peers play, perform actions such as making fun of using the name. As a result, the child is likely to be withdrawn in order to avoid the ridicule of his friends.

5. Which attractions appeal meant not just on looks. But on attitudes and behavior. A child will begin to look attractive or not usually starts at the age of five years. Where in this age, a child who is not attractive tend to move aggressively in order to attract the attention of others. While a child would choose to be attractive calm and position yourself as a problem solver for fellow friends.

Finally. Through the approach of developmental psychology, the parents can apply to the educational process of their children. Of course, without having to leave the nature of a child to be able to live in their world. Therefore, many parents are trying to make their children become what they want, without realizing that it is not what the child wants.


d. Illustration of developmental psychology

One part of the science of psychology is the science of developmental psychology. This knowledge is categorized into specific groups of psychology. Therefore, the applied psychology examines and discusses issues of behavior in detail or special.

In general, psychology is a branch of social science that examines the human focal point, especially from the psychological point of view. Thus, science will be able to unravel some aspects of the phenomena inherent in a person's behavior. This is related to a person because of psychiatric problems is one important element that will determine the character of a person.

In any event, a person's character can be a parameter in the decision process. A case in recruitment of employees, any position or positions requiring a different character. Are like admisitrasi section should be filled by a person of character meticulous, patient and has a high analytical skills.

Meanwhile, in the marketing department should be given to those who have an aggressive character, love a challenge and do not give up. This is because both positions require personnel who have the character and not just anyone can occupy that position.


e. Benefits of Developmental Psychology

As part of the science of psychology, there are some benefits that can be obtained by studying these developmental psychology. Some of these benefits include:

• development of the science of psychology will be able to demonstrate facts and concepts related to a variety of human behavior.
• Someone who learned about the concept of developmental psychology will be easier in an attempt to identify the person's own personality. Where normally, one is much easier to recognize someone else's personality rather than their own personality.
• Psychology can be one method for a person to assess themselves.
• If someone is able to recognize themselves, will make it easier for him to judge others in the light of objective and not subjective.
• Knowing the size of normal behavior, so it will be able to know if there is deviation behavior that is outside the normal level. Good to judge others or to themselves.

In education, an understanding of developmental psychology also has an important role. It will primarily be used by teachers to know a few things. Among them are used for:
As the media to determine the educational and learning materials for students, by looking at the needs of students at each particular development.
As a way to determine how teaching and language selection selaraas developmental level students' thinking.


f. Understanding Development

In kosep developmental psychology, man is the object of research in relation to a person. As an individual, a process that would take place since man is born to die. In this case, the meaning of development is identified as a specific process that runs continuously, always moving forward and can not be repeated.

in prossesnya, meaning of the word "development" is then defined specifically as a phase change both qualitatively and quantitatively. Where the change is related to the mental aspect of human psychology.


g. Types and Character Development

A developmental psychologist, Elizabeth Hurlock explained about some of the types of changes that occur in the development stages as well as some special properties in it. According to Hurlock, there are four types of development that could be analyzed, such as:

- Changes in the level of size

- Changes in the level of the comparison

- Defining shape or form

- Getting a new form

Meanwhile, in a process of development in which includes ten specific characteristics. The ten specific traits are:

• Developments based on a specific pattern
• The development occurred from the general to the specific nature of the properties
• The development continues without a break
• Speed ​​of development in children occurs differently
• Each body part has a different speed in the process of development.
• The occurrence of any nature of the relationship between development
• The development can be predicted.
• The occurrence of characteristic of each different phase of development.
• Attitude is considered a problem, often a common attitude depending on age.
• All the normal people, would reach every last phase of the development.

From the analysis put forward by Hurlock some conclusions can be drawn. First is gained understanding about the importance of knowing the basis of the development. Secondly, we can have an expectation of a certain age, can thus be avoided excessive hope or despair emergence both of which have adverse implications. Finally, by studying developmental psychology, can guide us to determine exactly when we do something and what we should do. Thus, the process of growth and development can occur well as expected.


h. Phase and Feature Development

Broadly speaking, the division of developmental periods suggested by experts can be categorized into three groups. The three are:

1. Period according to biological

The division of this period according to biological, refers to the process of development by looking at the person's body or biological conditions. Aristotle said, the process of physical development only between the first and the second phase is characterized by the replacement teeth. As for the second and third phase, shown by the functioning parts of the genital glands.

2. Period by psychological

Originator of the distribution period is based psychological Kroch Oswald. Kroch said, that the shock is one of the basis for the division during development. Because Kroch believe that a person's psychological state during this period in a very distinctive and will happen to all the children in their development.

3. Period according to the didactic.

Distribution according to the didactic period is presented two experts, the Harvey A. Tilker in the book "Developmental Psycology Today (1975) and supported by the Elizabeth B. Hurlock through his book "Developmental Psycology" (1980). In the process presented both, every man will experience the developments since the man was still in the womb until death. In detail, this didactic period are translated into several sections, namely:

• The Pre-Birth
• The Baby Lhir
• The Baby
• Early Childhood
• The End of Childhood
• Puberty Stage
• Adults Early Stage
• Stage Middle Adults
• Stage Elderly


i. Factors Affecting

In the process of development of a person, there are several factors that have an important role and lead to the acceleration of the development of a person different from others. some of these factors are:
• Intellegensi
• Sex
• gland in the body
• Nationality
• Position in the family
• Food
• Injury and Illness
• Adequacy of air circulation
• Culture

In addition to the factors that influence the process of change, there are some things that the cause of development. This was stated by Hurlock, who says there are three things that cause the development of a person. The three causes include the following:

• Maturity or maturation
• The process of learning and training
• The combination of maturity and learning.

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