History of Psychology

If we study the history of psychology, we will find the information and insights into the psychological development of a very long journey. Starting from BC years, psychologists have in the past continue to develop the science of psychology, so that a common psychology that we know today.

The history of psychology as a science of its own psychic is believed to have existed since the days of Ancient Rome and Ancient Egypt. Interest of philosophers in the two countries to develop ideas and theories of philosophy until it becomes a branch of psychology that stands alone. Later, psychology is defined as the science of learning and the mental attitude and scientifically developed first in Germany and the United States.

a. History of Psychology in Greece, Rome, Egypt, China, and the Middle East

Science and the knowledge of the soul, mind, and spirit of the ancestors of the science of psychology has been elaborated by the various cultures of the world since time immemorial. For example, in ancient Egypt, there is a writing on papyrus leaves, called the Edwin Smith Papyrus, contains descriptions of the parts of the brain and speculation on the function of each part.

Thales, an Ancient Greek philosopher was the first developer psychological theory called psuche. At the same time, he also developed in terms of psychology. Philosophical theories about the psychological affects some later philosophers, such as Plato (especially in his book "Republic"), Pythagoras, and Aristotle.

Later, Hellenistic philosophers flow up and learn the location of the physiological human mind. The patterns of thinking about psychology is at the root of psychology by Christian and Muslim philosophers in the future. In the history of psychology continent of Asia, the Chinese have long used the test "psychological capabilities" as one of the tests of learning ability. In fact, a man named Lin Xie ever done a psychological test.

In these tests, he asked some people to draw rectangular with one hand and with the other circle. The test is intended to test the ability of synchronization patterns of thought and testing one's concentration. Some experts said that Xie Lin test is a psychological test in the world.

In addition, in parts of Asia, the medieval Muslim scholars were also incised ink history of psychology. Ahmad ibn Sahl al-Balkhi was the first Muslim who raised the issue of the relationship between body and soul. According to him, if the soul or mind of a person is 'sick', his body will feel uncomfortable and can even become ill.

He pioneered the principle of balance between body and soul. Al-Balkhi also have known what we understand to be depressed right now, its association with the body, and the things that are the cause. In the 1010-s, a Muslim scientist named Ibn al-Haytham conduct experiments on the relationship between body and soul. He also conducted experiments on the relationship between visual perception and sensation, and its relationship with sensitivity.

He concluded the relationship between what is perceived by the human senses dipersepsikannya in the brain, as if men feel the touch, making the perception of colors, and create the perception of darkness creepy. There are also Ibn Sina, who perform a variety of experiments on the relationship of disease and mental state of a person, as well as understand the relationship heart rate with one's feelings. Ibn Sina also made psychological phenomena such as hallucinations, insomnia, mania, nightmares, feelings of melancholy, and dementia (dementia) can be explained scientifically.

It also may explain the phenomenon of disease in the body, such as epilepsy, paralysis, stroke, vertigo and tremor were previously associated with things mystical.

Besides them, the medieval Muslim scholar who helped coloring the historical development of psychology of which is as follows.

• Ms. Sirin, who wrote a book on dreams and interpretation scientifically.
• Al-Kindi, who developed a method of music therapy for physical and mental health.
• Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, who developed the science of psychotherapy Islam.
• Al-Farabi, whose role is to develop the science of social psychology and the science of human consciousness.
• Ali ibn Abbas al-Zoroastrian, who introduced the science of neuro-anatomy and neuro-psychology.
• Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, who explains the science of nerve surgery.
• Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, which explains the attitude of human reflex reaction.
• Ibn Tufail, who pioneered the theory of tabula rasa (blank slate human as inscribed in ink of various colors).

b. Development and History of Psychology in the Western World

The philosophy of the Greek philosophers and developmental psychology by medieval Muslim scholars paved the way for the development of psychology in the Western world, the theories and methods widely used in modern psychology.

The word psychology in English is psychology. The word stems from the term a German philosopher named Rudolf Gockel (1547 - 1628) in his book entitled "Hoc Est de Hominis Psychologia Perfectione, Anima, Parents". But some experts believe the word psychology comes from a treatise entitled "Humanae Psichiologia de ratione Animae" written by a Croatian named Marko Marulic, six decades earlier.

The historical development of psychology in the Western world is inseparable from the development of Christianity there. Christian scholars regard psychology as a science of the soul. Forms of modern psychology as we know it is highly influenced by Rene Descartes in his works of "Meditations on First Philosophy" (1641), "Passions of the Soul" (1649), and "Treatise on Man" (1664) .

Although not formally studied medicine, Rene Descartes like to learn animal anatomy. This led him to his favorite study human anatomy with other doctors in Sweden. His interest in psychology began when he studied the anatomy of the brain and to understand the functionalities related to the phenomenon of human psychology.

His works gave inspiration to many in the West to learn the science of psychology, such as John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, and so on. The history of experimental psychology itself began in 1879. At that time, a German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt opened the named special laboratory experiments in psychology at Leipzig. He was the first to call himself a psychologist. Wundt wrote a book titled "Principles of Physiological Psychology".

The emergence and development of experimental psychology is a trigger psychological sciences applied to another. Late in the 1800s can be regarded as a period of development of psychological science in the Western world. Psychology scientific study was developed in the 1880's by G. Stanley Hall in Germany. Furthermore, also develops psychology-psychology applied in many fields, such as industrial psychology, psychology of law, and so on. In the 1890s, clinical psychology developed by Lightner Witmer. Psychological tests first in the Western world by James McKeen Cattell in the 1890's.

Meanwhile, in Vienna, Sigmund Freud pioneered the science of psychology called psychoanalysis. Science is successfully developed and widely used in the world today. Name Signmund Freud is known today as the father of psychoanalysis that theory is not only used in psychology, but also in other fields such as literary analysis and criticism.

Developmental psychology in the 20th century was marked by criticism of Wundt psychological theories. These criticisms are then lead to the formation of behavioral psychology (behaviorism), which makes the conclusions of the test or experimental psychology by looking at the object behavior pattern test or experiment.

In a further development, expanding the realm of psychology, creating new branches that can be applied in many fields, such as psycholinguistics. History of psychology seems to still not finished, as there are many aspects of life and function of the human brain that have not been explored by previous psychology and current.

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