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Psychology


Psychology is a field of science that studies the human behavior and cognition. According to the original he says, psychology comes from the Ancient Greek: "ψυχή" (Psyche means soul) and "-λογία" (-logia which means knowledge) so that in etymology, psychology can be interpreted with the study of the soul.


a. History of Psychology

As part of the science of psychology through a long journey. Psychological concept can be traced deep into ancient Greece, before Wundt declared his laboratory in 1879, which is seen as the birth of psychology as a science. Psychology itself has been known since the time of Aristotle as the life sciences, the science of life force (levens beginsel). Aristotle viewed psychology as the study of symptoms - symptoms of life. The soul is the life force (Anima), so every - every living thing has a soul. [2] It can be said that the history of psychology consistent with intellectual developments in Europe, and get a pragmatic form in the Americas.


b. Methods of Psychology

Some methodologies in psychology, including the following:

1. Experimental Methodology

How this is done usually in the laboratory by conducting various experiments. [4] Researchers have full control over the course of an experiment. That will determine what to do something that would be examined, when to study, how often do the research, and so on. In the experimental method, the nature of subjectivity from the method of introspection will be overcome. In the method of self-introspection purely a research object. But the number of subjects many experimental introspection, that is, people who dieksperimentasi it. With a wide number of subjects or the results obtained will be more objective

2. Scientific Observation

On scientific observations, a case in situations not caused deliberately. But the scientific process and spontaneously. Observations of this nature can be applied to the behavior of others, such as: the behavior of the people who were in a department store, the behavior of motorists on the highway, the behavior of children at play, the behavior of people in natural disasters, and so on .

3. History of Life (method biography)

The history of one's life can be an important source of data to learn more about "soul" is concerned, for example, from a story his mother, a child who is not a grade may not be known that he was not good but his interest in music since childhood was that she was not serious enough to enrolled in school. In this method, the outlines of keadaaa, attitudes - attitudes or other characteristics of the person concerned. In addition to having the advantage of this method also has a drawback, which is not uncommon these methods are subjective.

4. Interview

The interview is questioning the examiner and the person being examined. In order for man checked his heart could find itself, his views, his opinion and others in such a way that the person interviewing can dig up all the information that dibutuhkan.Baik questionnaires or interviews they both have in common, but differ in the way they are presented. Advantages compared with the interview questionnaire are:
In the interview if there is something less obvious, it can be clarified

interviwer (requester) can adapt to the mood interviwee (respondents were asked)
There is a direct interaction in the form of face-to facesehingga expected to foster good relationships when the interviews were conducted.

5. Questionnaire

Questionnaire an interview in written form. All questions have been compiled in writing in the pages of the question, and the interviewee simply read the questions and answer them in writing as well. The answers will be analyzed to find out the things investigated.
  • a) Examination of Psychology
In the language of popular psychology examination is also called psychological method is to use certain tools psikodiagnostik that can only be used by experts who actually trained. tools that can be used to reverse current measure and to determine a person's level of intelligence, the direction of a person's interest, the attitude of a person, a person of personality structure, etc. of the person who checked it.
  • b) Methods of Analysis of Work
Done by analyzing the work of such images - pictures, diaries or essays that have been made. This is because the work can be regarded as the originator of the state of one's soul.
  • c) Statistical Methods
Commonly used by collecting the data or material in research and conduct analysis of the results; has been obtained.

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