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Effective Learning Method


Learning or learning is a mandatory activity that we do and we give to our children. Because he is the key to success fatherly reach a bright future, preparing generations of the insights of science are high. Which in turn will be useful to the nation, the state, and religion. Seeing such a vital role, then implementing an effective and efficient method is a must. In hopes of learning process will run menyenakngkan and not boring. Below are some effective methods of learning, that we may prepare.

Methods Debate

Method of debate is one of the most important methods of learning to improve students' academic abilities. Teaching materials are selected and organized into packages pros and cons. Students are divided into groups and each group consisted of four people. Within the group, students (two people taking positions pro and two others in a position to counter) the debate about the assigned topic. Reports each group regarding the pros and cons of both positions are given to the teacher.

The teacher can evaluate each student's mastery of the material that covers both positions and evaluate how effectively students are involved in the debate procedures. Basically, for all models as successful as expected cooperative learning, each model must involve teaching materials that allow students to help each other and support when they learn the material and work mutually dependent (interdependent) to complete the task. Social skills required in business collaboration should be central to the successful completion of the task group. These skills can be taught to students and student roles can be defined to facilitate the group process. That role may vary according to the task, for example, the role of recorder (recorder), making conclusions (summarizer), moderate material (material manager), and the role of the teacher or facilitator can be a learning process monitors.

Methods Role Playing

Methods Role Playing is a way of mastery learning materials through the development of imagination and appreciation of students. Development of imagination and appreciation of the student to play her as a character living or inanimate objects. These games are generally performed more than one person, it depends on what is played. Excess Role Playing method:

Involve all students can participate have the opportunity to advance their ability to cooperate.
1. Students are free to make decisions and express their entirety.
2. The game is easy and discovery can be used in different situations and time.
3. Teachers can evaluate each student understanding through observation at the time of doing the game.
4. The game is a fun learning experience for children.


Problem Solving Methods (Problem Solving)

Methods of problem solving (problem solving) is the use of the method in learning activities with the road train students deal with problems both personal issues or individual or group to solve the problem alone or together.

Orientation learning is an investigation and discovery that is basically problem solving.
The advantages of problem solving methods as follows:

1. Trains students to design an invention.
2. Think and act creatively.
3. Solve realistic problems encountered
4. Identify and investigate.
5. Interpret and evaluate observations.
6. Stimulate the development of students' progress thinking to solve the problems faced by the right.
7. Can make education more relevant to life, especially the world of work.

Weakness problem solving method as follows:
1. Some subjects are very difficult to apply this method. Eg lack of laboratory equipment make it difficult to see and observe students and finally to conclude the event or concept.
2. Allocation requires a longer time compared to other methods of learning.


Problem Based Learning

Problem Based Instruction (PBI) focus on life issues that are meaningful to the students, the teacher presents a problem, ask questions and facilitate inquiry and dialogue.

Steps:
1. Teacher explains the purpose of learning. Explain the logistics required. Motivating students engage in problem solving activities selected.
2. Teachers help students learn to define and organize the tasks associated with the issue (set of topics, tasks, schedules, etc..)
3. Teachers encourage students to collect appropriate information, carry out experiments to get an explanation and problem solving, data collection, hypothesis, problem solving.
4. Teachers assist students in planning and preparing the appropriate work such as reports and help them share the duties with his friend.
5. Teachers help students to reflect on or evaluation of their investigation and the processes they use.
Pros:
1. Students are engaged in learning activities so that knowledge absorbed really well.
2. Trained to work with other students.
3. Can be obtained from various sources.
Disadvantages:
1. For students who are lazy goal of the method can not be achieved.
2. Requires a lot of time and money.
3. Not all subjects can be applied with this method

Cooperative Script

The script is a cooperative learning method in which students work in pairs and verbally summarize the portions of the material being studied.

Steps:
1. The teacher divides the students to pair up.
2. Teachers distribute discourse / materials for each student to read and make a summary.
3. Teachers and students determine who first served as a speaker and who acts as a listener.
4. Speakers read the summary as complete as possible, to include main ideas in summary. While listeners listening / correct / show main ideas are incomplete and help remember / memorize the main ideas by connecting the previous material or other material.
5. Swapped roles, initially as a listener and speaker exchanged instead, and do as above.
6. Conclusion teachers.
7. Closing

Pros:
• Train hearing, accuracy / precision.
• Each student gets a role.
• Train reveals mistakes of others by the tongue.
Disadvantages:
• Only used for a particular subject
• Only do two people (not involving the whole class so that the correction was limited to the two-person).


Picture and Picture
Picture and Picture is a learning method that uses images and paired / sorted into logical sequences.
Steps:
1. Teachers convey competence to be achieved.
2. Presenting the material as an introduction.
3. Teacher shows / showed pictures relating to the material.
4. Teacher pointing / calling students alternately install / sort the pictures into a logical sequence.
5. Teachers ask reasons / rationale for the sequence of images.
6. Of reasons / sequence start drawing teachers instill concepts / materials in accordance with the competencies to be achieved.
7. Conclusion / summary.
Goodness:
1. Teachers more aware of the capabilities of each student.
2. Trained to think logically and systematically.
Disadvantages: Takes a lot of time. Many students are passive.

Numbered Heads Together
Numbered Heads Together is a method of learning in which each student is given a number and then created a group then randomly call numbers of student teachers.
Steps:
1. Students are divided into groups, each student in each group gets a number.
2. Teachers give assignments and work on each group.
3. The group discusses the correct answers and ensure that each member of the group can do it.
4. Teachers call one of the numbers of students who are called to report the results of their collaboration.
5. The response from another friend, and teacher pointed to another number.
6. Conclusion.
Pros:
• Each student to be ready all.
• Able to conduct discussions in earnest.
• Students who are good to teach students who are less intelligent.
Weaknesses:
• Possible number called, called again by the teacher.
• Not all members of the group called by the teacher


Methods Investigation Group (Group Investigation)

Group investigation method is often viewed as the most complex and the most difficult to implement in a cooperative learning. This method involves students from planning, both in determining the topic and how to learn through investigation. This method requires the students to have a good ability to communicate and in group process skills (group process skills). Teachers who use investigative methods generally divide the class into groups consisting of 5 to 6 students with heterogeneous characteristics. Distribution groups can also make friends based on pleasure or common interest in a particular topic. The students choose a topic to be studied, following in-depth investigation of the various subtopics that have been, and then prepare and present a report to the class as a whole. The description of the steps the group investigation method can be stated as follows:

a. Selection of topics
Parasiswa select different subtopics within an area most commonly described problems in advance by the teacher. The students then organized into groups that are oriented to the task (task-oriented groups) consisting of 2 to 6 people. The composition of heterogeneous groups in gender, ethnicity and academic ability.

b. Planning for cooperation
Parasiswa and teachers plan a range of specific learning procedures, tasks and common objectives that are consistent with the range of topics and subtopics that have been out of step a) above.

c. Implementation
Parasiswa implement the plans that have been formulated in step b). Learning should involve a range of activities and skills with a wide variety and encourage students to use a variety of sources that are both inside and outside of school. Teachers continually follow the progress of each group and provide assistance if needed.

d. Analysis and synthesis
Parasiswa analyze and synthesize various information obtained in step c) and planning that can be summarized in an attractive presentation to the class.

e. Presentation of final results
All groups present an interesting presentation of the various topics they have learned in the classroom so that all students engage each other and reach a broad perspective on the topic. Group presentations coordinated by the teacher.

f. Evaluation
Teachers and their students to evaluate the contribution of each group to the work of the class as a whole. Evaluation can include each student individually or in groups, or both.


Jigsaw Method

Essentially, in this model the teacher share great information units into smaller components. The teacher divides students into cooperative learning groups of four students so that each member is responsible for the control of each component / sub-topics assigned to the best teachers. Students from each group were responsible for the same subtopic forming another group consisting of consisting of two or three people.

These students work together to complete the task kooperatifnya in: a) learn and become proficient in the subtopic thereof; b) plan how to teach subtopics part to members of the original group. After that the students go back to their respective groups as "experts" in subtopiknya and teach in the subtopic important information to his friend. Experts in subtopic others also do the same. So that all students are responsible for demonstrating mastery of all materials assigned by the teacher. Thus, each student in the group must master the subject as a whole.

Methods Team Games Tournament (TGT)

TGT cooperative learning model is one model or type of cooperative learning are easy to implement, involving the activities of all students without any difference in status, involving the participation of students as peer tutors, and contains elements of the game and reinforcement.

Learning activities with games that are designed in a cooperative learning model allows students to learn TGT is more relaxed in addition foster responsibility, teamwork, healthy competition and learning engagement.
Ada5 major component in the TGT main components are:

1. Presentation of class
At the beginning of learning the teacher presenting material in class presentation, usually done by direct teaching or lecturing, discussion led by the teacher. At the time of presentation of this class students should really pay attention and understand the material submitted by teachers, because it will help students perform better at work and at the game because the game score will determine the score of the group.

2. Group (team)
The group usually consists of 4 to 5 students whose members are heterogeneous views of academic achievement, gender, and race or ethnicity. The function of the group is to further explore the matter with friends group and more specifically to prepare members of the group in order to work properly and optimally during the game.

3. Game
Game consists of questions designed to test students' knowledge gained from classroom presentation and study groups. Most games consist of simple questions numbered. Students choose numbered cards and try to answer questions that correspond with that number. Students who answer the question correctly will get a score. These scores were later gathered students for a weekly tournament.

4. Tournament
Usually the tournaments conducted on weekends or on any unit after presenting the class teacher and the group has been working on the worksheet. The first tournament of teachers divide students into multiple table tournaments. The three highest student achievement grouped in table I, three students at the next table II and beyond.

5. Team recognize (group award)
The teacher then announces the winning team, each team will receive a gift certificate or if the average score meets the criteria specified. Team earned the nickname "Super Team" if the average score of 45 or more, "Great Team" in an average of 40-45 and the "Good Team" an average 30-40


Model Student Teams - Achievement Divisions (STAD)

Students are grouped heterogeneously then students who are good at explaining the other members to see.
Steps:
1. Form a group of 4 people whose members are heterogeneous (mixed according to achievement, gender, ethnicity, etc..).
2. Teachers present the lesson.
3. Teacher gives a task to be done by members of the group for the group. Members who knows explain to other members until all members of the group understand.
4. Teacher gives quiz / questionnaire to all students. When answering the quiz should not help each other.
5. Giving evaluation.
6. Closing.
Pros:
1. All students become better prepared.
2. Practicing cooperation with good.
Disadvantages:
1. Members of the group all have difficulties.
2. Distinguishing students.


Non Model Examples Examples

Examples Non-Examples are learning method using examples. Examples can be from cases / images relevant to the KD.
Steps:
1. Teachers prepare the drawings in accordance with the purpose of learning.
2. Teachers put a picture on a board or serving through OHP.
3. Teachers provide instruction and opportunity for students to observe / analyze the images.
4. Through discussion groups 2-3 students, the discussion of the analysis of the image is recorded on paper.
5. Each group is given the opportunity to read the results of the discussion.
6. Starting from the comments / discussions of students, teachers began to explain the material to the purpose to be achieved.
7. KKesimpulan.
Goodness:
1. Students are more critical in analyzing the images.
2. Students know the application of the material in the form of an example image.
3. Students are given the opportunity to express their opinion.
Disadvantages:
1. Not all the material can be presented in the form of images.
2. Take a long time.


Model Lesson Study

Lesson Study is a method developed in Japan that the Japanese language is called Jugyokenkyuu. The term lesson study itself was created by Makoto Yoshida. Lesson Study is a process in developing the professionalism of teachers in Japan with the probe / test their teaching practices in order to become more effective.

The steps are as follows:
1. Some teachers work together in a group. This partnership includes:
a. Planning.
b. Teaching practice.
c. Observation.
d. Reflection / criticism towards learning.
2. One of the teachers in the group doing the planning stages of making a mature lesson plan comes with theoretical foundations that support.
3. Teachers who have made a study plan in (2) then the actual classroom teaching. Means stage accomplished teaching practice.
4. The other teachers in the group observe the learning process while matching lesson plans that have been made. Means terlalui observation stage.
5. All teachers in the group, including teachers, who have taught together and then discuss their observations of the learning that has taken place. This stage is a stage of reflection. In this stage also discussed remedial measures for the next lesson.
6. The results in (5) is implemented in the next grade / learning next and so on back to (2).
The advantages of using the lesson study as follows:
- Can be applied in every field from the arts, language, and mathematics to sports and at all grade levels.
- Can be implemented inter / cross school.

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