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Information technology


a. Definition

Information Technology (IT), or in English known as Information Technology (IT) is a general term that describes any technology that helps people to create, modify, store, communicate and / or disseminate information. TI brings together computing and high-speed communications for data, voice, and video. Examples of Information Technology is not just a personal computer, but also a phone, TV, electronic home appliances, and modern handheld devices (eg mobile phones). [1]

Processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial information, text and numeric by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications. [2] The term in the modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that "the new technology does not have a single established name. We'll call it information technology (IT).". [3] Some of the modern and emerging fields of information technology is the next generation web technologies, bioinformatics,'' Cloud Computing'', global information systems, large scale knowledge base, and others.

b. History

At the beginning of history, humans exchange information through language. So language is a technology, a language allows one to understand the information conveyed by others but it did not last as long because after the greeting is complete, the information is in the hands of the recipient will be forgotten and can not be stored for long. Besides voice range is also limited.

After that develops technology to deliver information through pictures. With a range image could be further information. This image can be carried and passed on to others. In addition there is information that will last longer. Some pictures of ancient relics still exist today so that people now can (try to) understand the information to be conveyed manufacturer.

The discovery of the alphabet and numbers arabic easy way to deliver information that is more efficient than the previous method. An image that represents an event created by the combination of the alphabet, or by writing numbers, as MCMXLIII replaced by 1943. Technology to facilitate the writing of this alphabet information.

Then, the printing technology enabling the delivery of information even faster. Electronic technologies such as radio, television, computers become faster resulting in information spread over an area wider and longer stored.

c. General information

IT is the area of ​​managing technology and covers a variety of areas that include but are not limited to things such as processes, computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages, and data constructs. In short, what makes the data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the IT. IT provides businesses with four sets of core services to help execute the business strategy: business process automation, providing information, connecting with customers, and productivity tools.

TI perform a variety of functions (IT Disciplines / Competencies) from installing applications to designing computer networks and information databases. Some may do IT tasks including data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of the overall system. Information technology is starting to spread farther than the conventional personal computer and network technology, and more into the integration of technologies such as the use of cell phones, televisions, automobiles, and more, which increases the demand for jobs.

In the past, the (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) and the Association for computing machinery have collaborated to form accreditation and curriculum standards [4] for degrees in Information Technology program as a field of study as compared [5] with the Computer Science and Information Systems. SIGITE (Special Interest Group for IT Education) [6] is the ACM working group for defining these standards. IT services revenue worldwide amounted to $ 763 billion in 2009. [7]

d. Growth and technological capacity

Hilbert and Lopez [8] identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore's law): machines' application-specific capacity to compute information per capita has roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986-2007; capacity per capita in the world of computers destination general has doubled every 18 months over the past two decades, the capacity of the global telecommunications per-capita doubled every 34 months; storage capacity per capita world that it takes about 40 months to double (every 3 years), and per capita broadcast information has doubled approximately every 12.3 years.

Reference

1. Williams / Sawyer, (2007), Using Information Technology Indonesian translation, ANDI Publishers, ISBN 979-763-817-0
2. Longley, Dennis; Shain, Michael (1985), Dictionary of Information Technology (2nd edition), Macmillan Press, p. 164, ISBN 0-333-37260-3
3. "Information technology", Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition), Oxford University Press, 21 November 1989, accessed on 20 November 2010
4. ABET
5. Isbell, Charles; Impagliazzo, John; Stein, Lynn; Proulx, Viera; Russ, Steve; Forbes, Jeffrey; Thomas, Richard; Fraser, Linda et al. (December 2009), (Re) Defining Computing Curricula by (Re) Defining Computing, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM, ISBN 978-1-60558-886-5
6. ACM-SIGITE
7. "Gartner Says Worldwide IT Services Revenue Declined 5.3 Percent in 2009", Gartner, accessed on 20 November 2010
8. ab "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science (journal), 332 (6025), 60-65; free access to the article through here: martinhilbert.net / WorldInfoCapacity.html

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