Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756 - died in Vienna, Austria, December 5, 1791 at age 35 years) was a composer. He is regarded as one of the composers of European classical music is the most important and most famous in history. His works (about 700 songs) includes compositions which are widely recognized as the pinnacle work of symphonic music, chamber music, piano music, opera music, and choral music. Examples of his work is the opera Don Giovanni and Die Zauberflöte. Many of the works of Mozart considered a standard repertoire of classical concerts and music recognized as masterpieces of antiquity. His works are listed in Kochel-Verzeichnis catalog.
Mozart, who is known to have an absolute tuning capability (to know the exact tone without the aid of a tool), know the music from birth. His father, Johann Georg Leopold Mozart was an important composer of his time, one of his most important work is Kindersinfonie ("Symphony Kids"). Wolfgang was the youngest of seven children who died prematurely. Only he and Maria Anna Mozart ("Nannerl") who survive to adulthood. When she was four years old, Mozart was able to play the harpsichord and improvise on musical works of its predecessors. He even wrote the first composition at the age of five years. His works include Violin Sonata, and some of the Minuet. Leopold collected all of this without the knowledge of his compositions. So it is with Nannerl, he also is a very reliable keyboard player. Leopold who discovered her talent both felt "compelled" to showcase them to the rest of Europe.
Mozart was then taken to play the piano in front of the king of Bayern Munich. In September 1762, Leopold took a sabbatical from his position to promote his son to the kings. They then went to Vienna. There Mozart playing the piano in front of the Empress Maria Theresia who dazzled expertise will play Mozart and Nannerl. After this concert, Mozart must follow a long concert for three years, namely Paris (1763, 1765) and London (1764-1765). In these places, Mozart concerts in front of kings and also tested by them. Among others, by improvising themes given by the examiner with her eyes closed piece of cloth. Mozart as a child prodigy was welcomed everywhere. In London, he also met with the son of Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Christian Bach is often invoked as the English Bach. Mozart piano sonata in four hands in her lap while sitting Bach.
Symphony-a symphony of Bach and Carl Friedrich Abel affecting symphony-Mozart's first symphony (K.16 and K.19), which in 1764 & 1765. By 1767, Mozart composed a piano sonata from the composer-komonis other and make it into four pieces first piano concerto (K.37, K.39, K.40, K.41). In 1768, at the request of the Emperor of Vienna, Mozart composed the Opera Buffa (comic opera), La Finta Semplice (but not terpentaskan) and operetta Bastien und Bastienne.
In 1769, Mozart traveled to Italy. The results of this trip is quite good, very productive in the creation of Mozart's compositions. He composed the opera Mitridati, Re di Ponto (1770) and Lucia Silla (1772) and both had great success in the show in Milano. Mozart symphony also creates a lot during this trip, and influenced by Italian composers, composers such as Sammartini. In Bologna, Mozart also studied Kontrapung the most famous composition teacher at the time, Padre Martini.Sebelum returned from Italy, Mozart lived with his father for ten weeks in Vienna, Leopold Mozart did not want to go back and work a "handyman" music that was not too appreciated in Salzburg. Leopold tried to get to his office in Vienna, but to no avail. Actually, the act of showing off his children Leopold throughout Europe not so favored by the Emperor of Austria.
In Vienna, Mozart heard the works of Joseph Haydn's latest, and he was also friends with Michael Haydn (1737-1806), brother of Joseph Haydn. One of the important work of this period was K.183, Symphony No. 25 in G Minor (1773) and K. 201, Symphony in A Major (1774). At the same time in Salzburg, Bishop Segismundo died and was replaced by Hieronymous von Colloredo authoritarian and energetic. Upon his return from Italy, served as Maestro Mozart in Salzburg chapel.
Bishop Colloredo who was not too interested in music, making Mozart was upset mainly because of his Mozart is often underestimated. To forget the sense of resentment at the Colloredo, Mozart became quite diligent work, he put his ability to the creation of various compositions. At the birthday-21, the amount of the composition has reached three hundred pieces. In 1777 Mozart resigned from his post as Maestro and he began his career as a freelance musician in Vienna. The works of 1775-1777, including the importance of the piano sonatas of the first, five Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto and some, opera La jardinera gingida including his masterpiece is the first in Eb Major K.271.
Mozart family plans to leave and career in Paris. But Leopold is still under contract with the Chapel of the Archbishop of Salzburg that Mozart could not go away accompanied by her mother. They departed in September 1777, and the journey takes 16 months. Before arriving in Paris, they stopped and stayed for some time in Munich and Mannheim. In Mannheim, Mozart and friends with the composer Cannabich Holzbauer. He tried to get a job there through the Prince of Mannheim, but to no avail. The main reason Mozart's stay longer in Mannheim is because he met and fell in love with Aloysia Weber, a 16-year-old soprano. Leopold who knows this write a letter saying that Mozart had to decide his own choice, if he would just be a 'street artist who will be forgotten over time or become a famous musician, loved and in a different book. "
Mozart also found a composition of 6 duetti Clavicembalo e Violino of Joseph Schuster and send it to Nannerl. He wrote a letter to his father's 'If I stay here, I'm also going to make six pieces in the same style as they sell well enough here'
Although disappointed (and also because of his love rejected Aloysia), Mozart went to Paris perjalananya. In Paris, Mozart began working with les-giving private lessons, and create songs that suit the tastes of the French. Mozart had the opportunity to perform his work by the Concert Spirituel. One of the most important work is K.297, Symphony No. 31 'Paris'. However, after this performance, Mozart's mother soon fell ill with high fever and died on July 3, 1778. Mozart's friends in Paris, a nobleman named Grimm wrote a letter to Leopold that there was no future for Mozart in Paris mainly because of the controversy between supporters of Gluck and supporters of Italian opera that Mozart could not be considered.
Leopold then managed to get a job at the Palace Salzburg organist with a salary higher than the previous position. Before departing from Paris, Mozart met again with JC Opera's staging of Bach. Important works besides symphonies 'Paris' are some of the Violin Sonata K.304 Violin Sonata included in E Minor, K. 299, Concerto for Flute and Harp in C Major, and K.310, Sonata in A Minor, one of the Mozart sonata that has a dark atmosphere that was created for Mozart to his mother who died.
Mannheim, but Mozart's home through the famous Mannheim orchestra had moved to Munich. Mozart then went to Munich and spent some time with the Weber family. Here, Mozart had a broken heart because it is given a soprano Aloysia and ignoring the existence of Mozart. Leopold Mozart became upset over the delay and his less responsible for a critical position. He was afraid that his position was given another organist.
Mozart returned to Salzburg, and he immediately got a job as organist there. His duties include playing the organ at the cathedral, the palace, and palace chapel, composed the song order, and teach the children choir.
In 1779 and 1780 took place without much incident. The works of importance in this period, including K. 364, Sinfonia Concertante in Eb, Symphony no. 32-34, some of the Concerto, Serenade, divertimento, ecclesiastical music which includes K. 317, Missa Coronation and K. 339, Vesparae.
Mozart, even got an important position as an organist still can not get along with Colloredo. In the summer of 1780, Mozart's opera Idomeneo orders received. Mozart saw this opportunity as a chance to break away from Colloredo slowly.
Idomeneo show was successful and was warmly welcomed by the public. Mozart family then went to Ausburg to attend the celebration of carnival and traditional party in the city. But unexpectedly, Colloredo was also present at the party. He forced Mozart to go to Vienna with his entourage, and attended the coronation of Emperor Joseph II. In Vienna Mozart treated disrespectfully as to lead to a fight with Colloredo. On May 9, 1781, Mozart had a big fight with Colloredo and ask him dismissed, but was refused. One month later, Mozart dishonorably discharged. He moved home to the Weber family in Vienna. He did not return to Salzburg.
Aloysia Weber was married to an actor, but Constanze Mozart was captivated by Weber, Weber family's third child. His father did not approve of Mozart's. To ease tensions, Mozart moved to his own house in September 1781. On December 15, 1781, with Constanze Mozart acknowledged. Leopold still do not approve of the relationship. Actually, Mozart could not escape because the mother Konstanze threatening when they broke up, be Mozart reimburse the compensation that has been issued.
On August 4, 1782 Mozart married Constanze in the cathedral of St. Stephen. The next day, got a letter from Leopold Mozart that it approve of their relationship despite the cold tone of the letter. Mozart was happy marriage even though they pretty much face the challenges of life. Mozart always been in crisis for money but he never lived in poverty, and of his six children, only two were alive.
Mozart made a living by teaching three or four students a rich and play a concert-concert at the manor house in Vienna. In December 1781, Mozart performed at the Imperial Palace in an informal with Muzio Clementi pelombaan. They both make improvements individually and jointly play a sonata. Although Mozart is considered to win the race, but hopes to get a position at court is not satisfied.
On July 16, 1782, staged Mozart opera Die aus dem Serail entfuhrung. Opera is getting a standing ovation from the public. Emperor Joseph II tells Mozart opera proficiency level that has "a lot of tone" and Mozart replied "the tone exactly right, Your Majesty." Even Gluck operas request is repeated.
In the same year, he used to play regularly at the house the Prince Gottfried von Swieten. Swieten who are interested in Baroque music turned out to affect the composition of Mozart in the making. Mozart developed kontrapung style in his music.
In 1784, Mozart joined the Freemasons member, a union that supports the idea of brotherhood under God. Thanks to this union Mozart can borrow money at the time he needs.
Mozart's career peak in the period 1784-1786 there. Mozart composed the very diligent. He made twelve Concerto and the musicologist considered as his most important work. Although the Emperor Joseph II come to hear a concert of Mozart, it did not help financially. Mozart was given a position as court musician with a salary that is not too large.
Le Nozze in Figaro ("Marriage Figaro") was first staged in Vienna in 1786 and the success that Mozart took him to Prague (Czech capital) with even greater success. Mozart composed several works again, among others K. 505, Symphony No. 38 in D Major "Prague". Thanks to Le Nozze kesuksean in Figaro, Mozart eager to create new operas including Don Giovanni, a comic opera. Mozart for the first use of trombones in opera, it is this which resulted in a fairly dramatic effect. In 1787, Leopold died and is affecting the work of Mozart.
Mozart's last symphony, symphony, Symphony No.. 39, 40, and 41 'Jupiter' is not known for certain whether they were staged before Mozart died or not. In the spring of 1789, Mozart went to Berlin as a pianist performing in front of the Prince of Saxony in Dresden, he also played organ at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig. He also played a private concert at the Friedrich Wilhelm II, on his visit to Potsdam and Berlin. Wilhelm II asked him to make six piano quartets and six piano sonatas, which unfortunately did not get resolved by Mozart.
Returned to Vienna, Mozart opera staging, Die Zauberflote ("Magic Flute"). Opera was a huge success, its libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder wrote (1751-1812). Upon completion of this opera, Mozart received an order from Prince Franz von Walsegg to make a Requiem is intended to make the composition as his work in memory of his dead wife. Mozart did not get to finish his last major work was continued by his pupil, Franz Xaver Süssmayr. According to some sources, Mozart Lacrimosa could not sing the song while playing with his friends. Of his music is dark, Franz Beyer commented on, the album Requiem 'I could hear Mozart, who spoke for his own benefit, with the urgency, like a sick little boy and saw his mother with great hopes and fears of separation'. Mozart also had a fear of death. On December 5, 1791, Mozart died, one in the morning.
The cause of Mozart's death was never recorded clearly. The musicologist makes several allegations of possible unknown why Mozart's grave is located.
- Salieri poisoned Mozart which is a rival. There are journals in Europe who say Salieri admitted before he died in his bed (1825), although there are other stories that oppose it.
- At Mozart's funeral there was a blizzard so that families can follow the funeral. This story was denied by the Vienna weather records.
- Mozart's body was moved to another place because the family could not pay the cost of burial.