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Biography of Thomas Jefferson


Biography of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was born in Shadwell, Gloochland (now Albemarle), Virginia, USA on 13 April 1743. Son of Peter and Jane Jefferson Randoph, married couples are. His father, Peter, died when he was 14 years old and inherit the land area of ​​2.750 acres and a slave. Jefferson studied at William and Mary college for two years, but somehow it just came out before it can be to whatever degree. Subsequently he studied law for several years and in 1767 he was placed in the Virginia judicial body.

Jefferson seven years practicing law practice while wallowing in agriculture. At the same time he also became a member of "Burges", Virginia legislature.

Jefferson's first important essay A Summary View of Rights of British America, on view of the particulars in passing British American rights. The essay was written in 1774. The following year he was elected a member of the delegation of Virginia to attend the second Continental Congress, and in 1776 he started making doodles draft the Declaration of Independence. At the end of that year he returned to the Virginia legislature and play perananlah him there in terms of various important decisions regarding the changes a major problem. Two of his proposals is the Statute of Virginia for Religion Freedom and the Bill for More General Diffusion of Knowledge. The first concerns the legislation concerning religious freedom in Virginia and the second concerning legislation on the spread of science in general. The latter is obviously related to the purposes of public education.

Jefferson's proposals concerning education, among others: the provision of basic education to everyone; establishment of a government college for those who are gifted deserve higher education; a system of scholarships. Jefferson's education plan is not accepted by the state of Virginia at the time, despite a similar plan recently implemented by other countries without exception.

Legislation concerning freedom of religion are impressive even admirable as contained therein as well as religious tolerance and firmness of the separation between religion and state. (Previously, the Anglican Church is the official religion in Virginia). Indeed, there is opposition to this proposal Jefferson but also ultimately approved by the Virginia legislature (1786). A similar idea immediately approved the law on human rights by other states, and are finally approved in the United States Constitution itself.

Jefferson become governor of Virginia from 1779 until 1781. Then he "retired" from political life. During this period he wrote ngaso the only book Notes on the State of Virginia, Virginia state affairs. This book contains the attitude of Jefferson, among others, the firm and brightly lit on the anti-slavery. 1782, Jefferson's wife died after ten years of marriage and the birth of six. Although the widower Jefferson was still quite young, but she did not marry again after that.

Then he hurried to stop from ngasonya and immersed herself in Congress. There he suggested notion of things in terms of currency distribution and size weight (this was before the metric system plan, which is assessed by a meter long, was assessed by gram weight, the content assessed by the liter and so on) is rejected. He also proposed banning slavery throughout the state, but this proposal was rejected simply because a single vote!

In 1784 Jefferson was visiting France on a diplomatic mission. Once up there so he replaced Benjamin Franklin to be the American ambassador to France. Five years he lived in France, known only he was absent from the political activities within the United States, including when the constitution drawn up and approved. Jefferson welcomed the ratification of the constitution, and like other leaders, he was absolutely convinced that laws should guarantee the rights stated in the constitution.

Jefferson returned to his country at the end of 1789 and immediately appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs korsi. In developing the cabinet forum fierce differences between Jefferson with the Minister of Finance Alexander Hamilton. They are different schools of political opinion.

In a national scale of political support Hamilton joined to form the Federal Party, while Jefferson's political supporters joined to form the Democratic-Republican Party that evolved into the Democratic Party as we know it.

Jefferson finished in 1796 but the two candidates for President after John Adams. Under the constitutional provisions applicable at the time, by itself he only occupied the Vice President. New in 1800 he again advanced and Win beat him so President John Adams.

As President, Jefferson moderates do fine against the former political opponents, and thus instilling the entrenched political tradition for the United States in subsequent periods. The peak of the peak lasting legacy he gave during the presidential term is a step in the purchase of Louisiana, which resulted in making the United States is almost double the breadth. Louisiana purchase is probably the largest transfer of ownership in a peaceful area in history. This in turn makes the United States a great and powerful country in the world, Hence the term has significance far. If Jefferson a charge of affairs that the purchase of Louisiana, so I could put him over the top in the order of the list now. But, I believe, the French leader Napoleon Banaparte, in making the complicated steps and decisions to sell the United States is the best person holding the role. Instead of Jefferson. If ever there was one American who had a big role in this sale transaction, it was not Jefferson, because Jefferson never had a dream to make a purchase of land so vast. The-best approach is the mission of the United States in Paris, Robert Livingston and James Monroe kiss was so good and profitable opportunity to negotiate the sale, he sped past the diplomatic instructions on them and jump in a buy-sell agreement. (It is interesting that on the record that is placed on a tombstone, Jefferson did not include the purchase of Louisiana as one of the achievements, but notes that he himself wrote).

Jefferson be elected president again in 1804 but in 1808 he decided did not want to be president for a third time. He means to strengthen measures ever taken by George Washington. Jefferson retired in 1809 and the only next step is the activities of government is establish the University of Virginia (inaugurated in 1819). That way he could see part of the plan ever proposed in the Virginia legislature realized, although the new forty-three years later. Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, on the fifth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, after a journey full of struggle - and happiness - for more than eighty-three years.

Besides his talent a lot of political talent. He mastered five or six foreign languages, he's serious interest in natural sciences and mathematics, he was a successful farmer who wallow in the way of scientific farming. And he's also a producer of goods, an inventor, though small in size and also a clever architect.

Due to the talent and personal qualities that are so prominent, people often judge exaggerated, the real effect beyond that he have in history. If we will carefully assess its significance, perhaps we should set out the particulars of the Declaration of Independence, because at the planners considered it a great work of Jefferson. The first point to note the Declaration of Independence was not part of the law of the United States government because of its importance lies in the fact that the declaration was a spontaneous outburst of American ideals. Moreover, the ideals contained in Jefferson's ideas are not original but the bulk comes from the writings of John Locke. Declaration of Independence was not a genuine philosophy of the original, and it is not intended as a concise statement of beliefs which have become role models of many Americans.

Nor was it because of the greatness of Jefferson in drafting the declaration sentences are pushing the nation proclaimed its independence. The Revolutionary War was essentially broke in April 1775 (more than a year before the Declaration of Independence) that originated from the battle of Lexington and Concord. In the months after the battle, the American colonies faced a critical decision: should they should be demanding immediate independence or to compromise with the British government? In the spring of 1776, chose the first alternative passion grew even stronger in the Continental Congress. But nor Jefferson Richard Henry Lee of Virginia on June 7 officially proposed that the American occupation declared itself independent from Britain. Congress took the decision to delay a vote on the proposed resolution and Lee a few weeks to form a committee under the leadership of Jefferson to make a statement to the public the reasons for declaring independence. (Other committee members wisely lets the Jefferson draft the declaration alone). Congress hears again shows Lee resolution on July 1 and the next day when the vote the proposal was accepted unanimously. On July 2 vote was a critical decision regarding the declaration of independence solved. Only after the resolution was diterimalah Jefferson to debate the draft arrangement. The resolution was received by Congress (with some changes) two days later on July 4, 1776.

When the Declaration of Independence is considered not that important as most people think, whether there are other works that can be placed in high positions in list order this book? In a note on his tombstone, Jefferson called the two works that he hopes to be remembered person. First, its role in relation to the establishment of the University of Virginia despite the fact it is not so decisive, yet not sufficient condition of this inclusion in this order list. Second, his work as author of the Statute of Virginia for Religions Freedom that is able to properly qualified and have meaning. Of course, the general idea of ​​religious freedom has been triggered by various philosophers before Jefferson's famous, including John Locke and Voltaire. But the legislation is more advanced than the idea that Locke is recommended. Furthermore, Jefferson was an active politician who managed to realize his thoughts into the form of laws, and the Jefferson proposal affects other states as they make the laws regarding human rights.

It's tempting further question: to what extent the shares are donated Jefferson in terms of ratification of the law on federal rights? Jefferson is representative of those who menggandrungi guarantee human rights and indeed he was one of the intellectual leaders of the group. But Jefferson was not in the country between the years 1784 to late 1789, so it certainly does not engage when the debate speech rights at the convention before the hard-hard konstritusi. James Madison was the one who held a key role and managed to make amendments through Congress. (Congress passed the amendment on September 25, 1789, before Jefferson returned to the United States).

It may be said, is not the action steps resini Jefferson, but his attitude affected the most in the United States. But, still doubt the extent of Jefferson's ideas accepted by the American people. Many people who laud the name of Thomas Jefferson, support the political wisdom, which is precisely contrary to the opinion of Jefferson himself. For example, Jefferson convinced with what we now call "small government." A characteristic expression (derived from his inaugural address): "... that is a wise and economical administration that would prevent people from hurting others, which will provide more flexibility to set free the industry's desire and improvement of life ..." Jefferson was probably the starting point, but the general election in the last forty years shows that the words did not convince the majority of Americans. Second example. Jefferson fiercely oppose the view that the final authority to interpret the Constitution lies in the hands of the Supreme Court, which can thus also passed a law that is unconstitutional despite Congress agreed. Opinion of this kind, he thought, contrary to the principle of democratic pemeritahan.

Previous sentences may be clear that Jefferson actually a small effect and does not deserve a place in this book.

But if people are too fascinated by the trees, he will lose the picture of the forest as a whole. If people would rather step back and try to assess Jefferson's career in a larger scale, people will soon be able to see why Jefferson described as "a spokesman for a prominent human freedom."

Should Thomas Jefferson placed higher or lower than George Washington? American independence and the democratic institutions established by the joint efforts of people full of ideas and people who work hard. If both are equally important, I believe the general idea is a more important contribution factor. In terms of the executive, George Washington clearly played a dominant role. Awards to those who had the idea should be - like it or not - is divided among a large sejunilah people, including Americans like Jefferson and James Madison and the Europeans like John Locke, Voltaire and many others. On the basis of reason, Thomas Jefferson in addition to a great talent and weighed, placed in the order under George Washington in this book.

References:

* Http://odur.let.rug.nl/ usa/P/tj3/writings/brf/jeflxx.htm
* Http://www.nagasaki-gaigo.ac.jp/ishikawa/amlit/j/jefferson1718.htm
* Http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=j000069
* Http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/jefferson.html
* Http://www.acton.org/publicat/randl/liberal.php?id=375
* Http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/jefferson_papers/
* Http://media.isnet.org/iptek/100/Jefferson.html
* Http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson

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