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Biography of Winston Churchill


Biography of Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (30 November, 1874 - January 24, 1965) is a political figure and author of Britain's best known as Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War II. Role as a strategist, orator, diplomat and a leading politician Churchill made one of the most influential figures in world history. In 1953, Churchill was awarded Nobel Prize in literarur for the contribution he made to his writing books on English and world history.

Childhood

The real family name is Spencer Churchill, Churchill (because he has blood ties with the Spencer family), but starting with his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the whole family started using the name of the Churchill family.

Winston Churchill Churchill was a descendant of the first family is well known, John Churchill, first Duke Marlborough. Winston's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was also a political toloh third son of John Spencer-Churchill, Duke of Marlborough to-7. Mrs. Winston was Lady Randolph Churchill (Jennie Jerome), daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome.

Winston Churchill was born at Blenheim Palace in Woodstock, Oxfordshire; he was born without preparation when she started having contractions while traveling in horse-drawn carriage.

Like the other boys who came from upper class in those days, mostly spent his childhood in boarding school. One is the widespread anecdotal stories when Churchill wrote the entrance exam to Harrow School. When the Latin exam, he just wrote the title, name, number 1 and the point. Although he admitted, he was placed in classes for students who do not excel, concentrated on English lessons, field of study very well controlled by Churchill. Now, every year, Harrow school awarded Churchill (Churchill essay-prize) for essays that address topics that have been previously determined by the head of the English language.

Churchill's mother (known at that time as Lady Randolph) rarely visited his son, even though Churchill was loved and admired her. Churchill often wrote letters, asked his mother to come visit or to ask his father to let him come home. After Winston adults, the relationship between Winston and his mother become closer, so that their relationship is more like brother and sister relationships and lasting friendships.

The relationship between Churchill and his dad is not close, despite that he always followed his father's career. In 1816, he proclaimed, "My father is the chancellor of finance (Chancellor of the Exchequer) and one day, I will be doing the same thing." He does not have many friends as a child and it is always remembered him. Churchill very close to the nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest, and was very sad when he died on July 3, 1895. Churchill paid his funeral in the City of London Cemetery and Crematorium.

Unsatisfactory performance in the Harrow, Churchill is often punished because its value is considered to be poor and not try to learn better. Behavior are independent and rebellious nature often becomes an obstacle to the study of classical subjects like Latin and ancient Greek history. Nevertheless he showed talent in the magnitude of other subjects, like history, where he often get the best value. Churchill often considered, especially his own curry beranggap so, fails to excel in school. But he never accomplished by winning the fencing matches at school.

Churchill had been a member of the Freemasons around 1895, shortly after his father died until around 1912.

Military Service

Churchill attended the military academy at Sandhurst. After graduating at age 20, Churchill joined the army as a Subaltern (similar to the rank of lieutenant) in the Hussar cavalry IV regimen (regimen as the Queen's Own). This regimen was placed in Bangalore, India. After he arrived in India, Churchill suffered an injury in his shoulder.

In India, Churchill spent most of his time playing polo. This situation does not satisfy the young Churchill and the thirst for military experience. He began looking for opportunities to join in the war. In 1895, Churchill and Reggie Barnes obtained permission to go to Cuba to become observers of war between the Spanish troops and Cuban guerrillas. Churchill also received a commission to become a correspondent for the Daily Graphic newspaper. Churchill was delighted when he was involved in a shootout for the first time on birthday 21. During a trip to Cuba, he had visited the United States for the first time and introduced to the community of New York by a close friend of his mother, Bourke Cockran.

In 1897, Churchill tried to visit the Greek-Turkish war but the war ended before he arrived on the battlefield. He therefore decided to take leave and holiday in Britain. As soon as he heard about the rebellion in the North West Frontier Pathan, India (now an area of ​​Pakistan), he immediately returned to India to participate in the fight to end the uprising.

Sir Bindon Blood, leader of the expeditionary forces assigned to fight the rebel Pathans, had promised Churchill that he can participate in this conflict. While serving in the army during the six-week expedition, Churchill also wrote articles for newspapers The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph for £ 5 per article. In October 1897, Churchill returned to England. His first book on the conflict over, The Story of the Malakand Field Force, published in December.

Churchill is still officially stationed in India, but he managed to get permission off long term. Therefore, Churchill could take the time to try to be chosen as a soldier to be sent to regain control of Sudan, the troops were selected and will be led by Horatio Kitchener. Kitchener actually did not want Churchill as his troops, but the connections so that you maintain Churchill Prime Minister Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil sent a telegram to Kitchener. In the end, Churchill managed to get a position in the 21st Lancers - forces that are elected by the War Department (War Office), and instead of Kitchener. He also became a war correspondent for the Morning Post newspaper to pay 15 pounds per article. Churchill took part in a cavalry raid (Cavalry charge) of the last British in the battle at Omdurman. Month of October 1898, Churchill returned to England and began writing the book The River War, published in two volumes in the next year.

In 1899 Churchill left the army and decided to incarnate a career in parliament. He became a candidate for the Conservative Party in Oldham will, but could only occupy third place in the election, while Oldham at the time it only has a quota for the two seats.

Dated October 12, 1899, the second Boer War begins in South Africa, involving the British and Afrikaners. Churchill became a war correspondent for the Morning Post for four months and earn 250 pounds per month. After arriving in South Africa, he took a ride on the train that used by British soldiers under the command of Aylmer Haldane. The train is then slid off the rail because the attack of the Boer forces using explosives. Churchill, despite being a civilian, led the troops to clear the railway from the remnants of the explosion so that the locomotive and some railroad car carrying the wounded can be evacuated. Although the train was finally able to get away, Churchill, several other officers and soldiers captured and became prisoners of war in Pretoria.

Churchill managed to escape from prison prisoner of war. This action resulted in much criticism and controversy because some people think that Churchill should have waited for the Haldane and another man who planned the escape, the two men were unable or unwilling to take the risk of escape by climbing the fence. After a prison outside Pretoria, Churchill explore nearly 480 miles to the colony of Portugal in Lourenco Marques, Maputo Bay. A British citizen who works as a manager of mine helped Churchill Churchill by hiding in the mines. Then he smuggled into the Churchill train out of the region aimed at Boer. With this action Churchill became a national hero in Britain. However, Churchill did not return to England, he decided to board a ship to Durban to join the army led by General Redvers Buller. The force is aiming to destroy the Boer forces besieged Ladysmith, if successful, these troops also aims to take the city of Pretoria.

At this time, although it is still a war correspondent, Churchill also get a position in the cavalry regimen. He participated in the battle of Spion Kop in and be one of the first British soldiers into Ladysmith and Pretoria. Even Churchill and his cousin, Charles Spencer-Churchill (Duke Marlborough to-9), positioned far in front of the other British troops in Pretoria. Both men then demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer soldiers guarding the prison.

Churchill published two books about the Boer War, London to Ladysmith via Pretoria, published in May and Ian Hamilton's March in October 1900.

Political Career

Churchill used the fame he found to originate tempoh kerjaya that cover politics for sixty years, serving as an MP in the House of Commons from 1901 to 1922 and from 1924 to 1964. As a member of the Conservative Party, he moved to the liberals and the accompanying Cabinet when in her early thirties. He was one of the designers rather than political and ketenteraan for the Gallipoli landings in the Dardanelles failed when World War I, which caused him to be held as a "butcher Gallipoli". He was one who signed the Anglo-Irish agreement in 1921 that setting up the Irish Free State. Liberal Party then hit by internal divisions. After losing the 1922 election to Edwin Scrymgeour he originally came with the Conservative Party. Two years later at the 1924 election was sworn in as a Conservative representing Epping. He was sworn in as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1926 under Stanley Baldwin and the responsibility to restore Britain to the Gold Standard. When the General Strike of 1926, Churchill said mesingan reserve is used to break the strike pelombong. Churchill edited the British royal Gazette newspaper. When the schism that he voiced bahawa "General Strike Samaada break state, or the General Strike will break the country.".

Conservatives have ditewaskan kingdom in the UK General Election 1929. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the kingdom in 1931, Churchill was not picked to accompany the Cabinet. Churchill was the lowest peak in kerjayanya. Churchill spent the next few years to become concentrated to the work of writing, including the History of the English Speaking Peoples (unpublished sehinggalah after the end of World War II). Churchill is famous for its opposition to India's independence. Not long after that, his attention is concentrated to the emergence of Adolf Hitler and German weapons enhancement. Create real-time, Churchill was a lone voice calling for the British to improve the weapons to compete with German malignancy. Churchill is a critic of Neville Chamberlain encouraging police Adolf Hitler.

Role as Prime Minister of the War Time

At the beginning of World War II Churchill was appointed as First Lord of the Admiralty If Chamberlain's replaced the service in May, 1940, Churchill was sworn in as prime minister and form a joint kingdom. Churchill immediately made a friend and her closest advisers, Max Aitken, (Lord Beaverbrook) an industrialist and owner of leading akhbar, the person responsible for controlling expenditure airplanes. Max Aitken mind agility allow British trade increases and spending kejuruteraan aircraft properly, which contributed to the glory when the time of war.

Churchill's first speech of the day is an important source of inspiration to the British suppressed. The fact that the leading "I do not have anything to offer but blood, strong work, tears, and sweat" is his first speech as Prime Minister. The next speech before the Battle of Britain, with "We shall defend our island, whatever the price though, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing, we shall fight in the fields and streets, we shall fight on the hill, we will not be once- time to give up. "

Although Churchill's role in World War II can not be denied, he has many enemies in his country. He voiced his hatred of the idea as the provision of public health and better education for the majority of the population caused much dissatisfaction among the population, especially the hearts of their fight when the battle. Immediately after the war, Churchill was defeated badly by Clement Attlee and the Labour Party (UK).

Second cut

After the defeat of the Labour Party (UK) in the 1951 election, Churchill held the post of Prime Minister again. In 1953, Winston Churchill was awarded two honorary degrees. He was given the title to Sir Winston Churchill Sir Winston Churchill and was awarded the Nobel Prize for his expertise in writing in the writing of history and the history of intelligence and also spoke in maintaining a high human values. Ahmar wind attack on Winston Churchill in June 1953 memyebabkan paralyzed left side. Winston Churchill retired due to health on 5 April 1955 but perpetuate his position as Chancellor of the University of Bristol.

On January 15, 1965, Winston Churchill had a second wind-Ahmar Evere cerebral thrombosis - that caused him severe pain. Winston Churchill died nine days later on January 24, 1965. His body was placed in Westminster Hall for three days and the state funeral ceremony was held at St Paul's Cathedral. This is the first state funeral was held for the common man since Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington over 100 years ago. At the request of Winston Churchill, he was interred in the family ground at Saint Martin's Churchyard, Bladon, Woodstock, England.

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