Computer history

Before the year 1940

Since ancient times, the data processing has been performed by humans. Humans also find mechanical appliances and electronics to help humans in the calculation and data processing in order to get results faster. Computers that we encounter today is a long evolution of human discoveries of yore sejah form of mechanical or electronic means.


 computer and its supporting tools have been included in every aspect of life and work. Computers are now capable of more than ordinary mathematical calculations. Among them are computer systems capable of gauze code reading supermarket groceries, which handles millions of telephone calls and communications, networks that connects computers and internet various places in the world. After all of the data processing tool since ancient times till now we can classify into four major categories.

1. Manual equipment: data processing equipment is very simple, and most important factor in the use of the tool is using the power of the human hand

 2. Mechanical Equipment: the equipment that has been shaped mechanical manually actuated by hand

 3. Electronic Mechanical Equipment: Mechanical equipment is driven by a automatically by the electronic motor

 4. Electronic Equipment: Equipment that works fully electronically Some equipment has been used as a means of counting before the discovery of computer:

1. Abacus
Appeared about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still used in some place to date, can be regarded as the beginning of computing machines. This tool is allows users to perform calculations using bijibijian Develop a slide set on a shelf. The merchants of the period using abacus to calculate the trade transaction. Along with the emergence of a pencil and paper, especially in Europe, the abacus lost its popularity.

2. Numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator)
After nearly 12 centuries, came another discovery in terms of computing machines. On In 1642, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who was then aged 18 years, found what he called a numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator) to help him do the tax calculations. This brass rectangular box, called the Pascaline, used eight wheels serrated swivel to add numbers to eight digits. This tool is a ten-based number counter. The weakness of this tool is limits just to do the sums.

3. Numerical wheel calculator 2
In 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfried Wilhem von Leibniz (1646-1716) fix the Pascaline by creating a machine that can multiplying. Just like its predecessor, this mechanical device to work with use a serrated wheels. By studying the notes and drawings produced by Pascal, Leibniz can fine-tune the instrument.

4. Mechanical Calculator
Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar find a machine that can perform four basic arithmetic functions. Colmar mechanical calculators, arithometer, presented a more practical approach in the calculation because the device can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. With his ability, arithometer widely used until World War I. Together with Pascal and Leibniz, Colmar helped build a mechanical computing era.

Beginning of the computer that is actually formed by a professor of English mathematician, Charles Babbage (1791-1871). In 1812, Babbage noticed the natural compatibility between the mechanical and mathematical machines: mechanical machines are very good at doing the same tasks repeatedly without mistake; being a simple repetition of mathematics requires a certain steps. The problem grew to kemudain mechanic put the engine as a tool to address the needs of mechanics. Babbage's first attempt to address this issue appeared in 1822 when he proposed a machine for performing calculations differensil equation. The machine was called the Differential Engine. By using steam, the machine can store programs and can perform calculations and print the results automatically.

After working for ten years Differential Engine, Babbage suddenly

was inspired to start creating a general-purpose computer first, called the Analytical Engine. Babbage's assistant, Augusta Ada King (1815-1842) has an important role in the manufacture of this machine. He helped revise the plan, seek funding from the British government, and communicate the specifications Anlytical Engine to the public. In addition, a good understanding of Augusta about this machine makes it possible to put dlam instruction engine and also makes it the first female programmer. In 1980, the U.S. Defense Department named a programming language with the name of the ADA as a tribute to him.

In 1889, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) also applied the perforated cards to perform calculations. His first task is to find a faster way to do the calculations for the U.S. Census Bureau. Previous census conducted in 1880 took seven years to complete the calculation. With growing population, the Bureau estimates that it takes ten years to complete the census count.

In the next period, several engineers made other new enemuan p. Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) created a calculator to solve differential equations in 1931. The machine was able to solve complex differential equations that is considered complicated by academics. The machine is very large and heavy as hundreds of teeth and the shaft needed to perform calculations. In 1903, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry tried to apply an electric computer Boolean algebra in electrical circuits. This approach is based on the work of George Boole (1815-1864) in the form of a binary system of algebra, which states that any mathematical equation can be expressed as true or false. By applying the conditions are right and wrong into the electrical circuit in the form of connected-disconnected, Atanasoff and Berry made the first electric computer in 1940. But those projects stalled due to loss of funding sources.

After the year 1940

Developments after the 1940 Computer History subdivided into 5 generations.

1. The first generation of computers (1940-1959).

This first generation of computers used vacuum tubes to process and storing data. He became a fast heat and flammable, and therefore thousands of vacuum tubes required to run the entire operation of the computer. It also needs a lot of electrical power which causes electrical interference in the surrounding region. The first generation of computers is 100% electronic and aid experts in solving problems quickly and accurately calculated. Some first-generation computer:

a. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) designed by Dr. John Mauchly and Presper Eckert in 1946. The computer generation is starting to store data that is known as the concept data storage (stored program concept) proposed by John Von Neuman.

b. Computer EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) The use of vacuum tubes have also been reduced in the design of computer EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) in which the calculation is faster than the ENIAC.

c. EDSAC COMPUTER (Electonic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) EDSAC (Electonic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) introduced the use of mercury (mercury) in a tube for storing data.

 d. UNIVAC 1 Computer In 1951 Dr. Mauchly and Eckert create UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Calculator) the first computer used to process data trade.

2. Second-generation computers (1959 -1964)
In 1948, the invention of the transistor greatly influenced the development of computers. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in televisions, radios, and computers. As a result, the size of the electric machines is reduced drastically. The transistor used in computers began in 1956. Other findings in the form of the development of magnetic-core memory development of second generation computers smaller, faster, more reliable, and more energy efficient than its predecessor. The first machine that utilizes this new technology is a supercomputer.

IBM makes supercomputer named Stretch, and Sprery-Rand called LARC. These computers, which were developed for atomic energy laboratories, could handle large amounts of data. The machine was very expensive and tend to be too complex for business computing needs, thereby limiting. There are only two LARC ever installed and used: one at the Lawrence Radiation Labs in Livermore, California, and the other at the U.S. Navy Research and Development Center in Washington DC Replacing a second generation computer machine language with assembly language. Assembly language is a language that uses abbreviations to replace the binary code. In the early 1960's, began to appear successful second generation computers in business, in universities and in government.

The second generation of computers is a computer which used transistors. They also have components that can be associated with the computer at this time: a printer, storage, disk, memory, operating system, and programs.

One important example is the computer on the IBM 1401 secaa widely accepted in the industry. In 1965, almost all large businesses use computers to process the second generation of financial information. Program stored in the computer and programming language that is in it gives flexibility to the computer. Flexibility is increased performance at a reasonable price for business use. With this concept, the computer can print invoices and then run the consumer purchases the product design or calculate payroll.

Some programming languages ​​began to appear at that time. Programming language Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) came into common use. These languages ​​replaced cryptic binary machine code with words, sentences, and math formulas more easily understood by humans. This allows a person to program and set the computer. Various New types of careers (programmer, analyst, and expert computer systems). Software industry also began to appear and grow during this second-generation computers.

3. Third-generation (1964 - early 80s)
Although the transistor is in many ways the vacuum tube, but the transistor generates substantial heat, which could potentially damage the internal parts of the computer. Quartz stone (quartz rock) eliminates this problem. Jack Kilby, an engineer at Texas Instruments, developed the integrated circuit (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combined three electronic components in a small silicon disc made of quartz sand. Scientists later managed to fit more components into a single chip, called a semiconductor. The result, computers became ever smaller as more components were squeezed onto the chip. Other third-generation development is the use of the operating system (operating system) that enables the machine to run many different programs at
once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory.

4. The fourth generation of computers (early 80's -?)
After IC, the only place to go was down the size of circuits and electrical components. Large Scale Integration (LSI) could fit hundreds of components onto one chip. In the 1980's, the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) contains thousands of components on a single chip.

Ultra-Large Scale Integration (ULSI) increased that number into the millions. The ability to put so many components in a chip that berukurang half pushing coins falling computer prices and sizes. It also increased power, efficiency and reliability. Intel 4004 chip that was made in 1971 brought advances in IC by putting all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and control input / output) in a very small chip. Previously, the IC is made to do a certain task spesifik.Sekarang, a microprocessor could be manufactured and then programmed to meet all the requirements. Not long after, everyday household items such as microwave ovens, televisions, and automobiles with electronic fuel injection incorporated microprocessors.

Such developments allow ordinary people to use a regular computer. The computer is no longer a dominance of large firms or government agencies. In the mid-1970s, computer assemblers offer their computer products to the general public. These computers, called minicomputers, sold with the software package that is easy to use by the layman. The most popular software at the time was word processing and spreadsheet programs. In the early 1980's, such as the Atari 2600 video game consumer interest in home computers are more sophisticated and can be programmed.

In 1981, IBM introduced the use of the Personal Computer (PC) for use in homes, offices, and schools. Number of PCs in use jumped from 2 million units in 1981 to 5.5 million units in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs in use. Computers continued evolution towards smaller sizes, from computers that are on the table (desktop computer) into a computer that can be put into bags (laptop), or even a computer that can be grasped (palmtop).

IBM PC to compete with the Apple Macintosh in the fight over the computer market. Apple Macintosh became famous for popularizing the graphical system on his computer, while his rival was still using text-based computer. Macintosh also popularized the use of mouse devices.

At the present time, we know the way to the use of IBM compatible CPU: IBM PC/486, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium IV (series of CPU made by Intel). Also we know AMD K6, Athlon, etc.. This is all included in the class of fourth-generation computers.

Along with the proliferation of computer usage in the workplace, new ways to explore the potential to be developed. Along with the increased strength of a small computer, the computers can be connected together in a network to share a memory, software, information, and also to be able to communicate with each other. Computer networks allow computers to form a single electronic collaboration to accomplish a task process. By using direct cabling (also called local area network, LAN), or telephone cable, the network can become very large.

5. The fifth generation computer (future)

Many advances in the field of computer design and technology enables the creation semkain fifth generation computers. Two engineering advances which are mainly parallel processing capabilities, which will replace the model of non Neumann. The model will be replaced by non Neumann system capable of coordinating a lot of CPU to work in unison. Another advance is superconductor technology that allows the flow of electrically without any obstacles, which in turn can accelerate the speed of information. Japan is a country known in the jargon and socialization of the project

The fifth generation computers. Institute ICOT (Institute for New Computer Technology) is also formed to make it happen. Many news stating that the project has failed, but some other information that the success of this fifth generation computer project will bring new changes in the world of computing paradigm.

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