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Definition Language


Language is a special capacity of man to obtain and use a complex system of communication, and language is a specific example of such a system. Scientific study of language is called linguistics. It is not possible to know exactly how many languages ​​are there in the world, and the amount depends on an arbitrary change between different languages ​​and dialects. However, estimates vary between approximately 6000-7000 languages. Natural language is speech or sign language, but each language can be encoded into the second media using auditory, visual or tactile stimuli, for example in the writings of graphics, braille, or whistling. This is because human language is a modality-independent. When used as a general concept, "language" could refer to the cognitive ability to be able to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to explain a set of rules that make up the system, or a set of pronunciation that can be produced from those rules.

Human language is unique among living things on earth because of the complex structure is able to provide the possibility of expression and the use of a wider area than the known animal communication systems, all of which generally is a closed system, the functions are limited and mostly transmitted genetically rather than social change. In contrast to other forms of communication other than-human, human language has the properties of productivity, recursive, and shift. Human language is also the only system that many rely on social convention and learning. Language is said to originate from the hominin first started working together, gradually changing their primate communication systems along with acquire the ability to form a theory of mind and purpose.

The development is said to coincide with increased brain volume, and many linguists see language structure has evolved to serve specific communicative functions. Language is processed in many different locations in the human brain, but especially in Broca's area and Wernicke's area. Humans acquire language through social interaction in childhood, and children are able to speak eloquently about the age of three years. The use of language has its roots in human culture. Therefore, not only used for communication, language also has many social and cultural functions, such as to indicate the identity of a group, social stratification and for social and entertainment sets.

All languages ​​rely on the process of semiosis to associate certain cues with meaning. Oral language and sign language has a phonological system that governs how the symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a system of syntax that governs how words and morphemes Katan combined to form phrases and mentions. Languages ​​change and vary over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages ​​to determine which properties should be owned by the language of their ancestors so that future changes can occur. A group of languages ​​descended from a common ancestor is known as a family of languages. The language used in the world today belong to the Indo-European family, which include languages ​​such as English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian and Hindi; Sino-Tibetan language, spanning Mandarin, Cantonese and other; Semitic languages, spanning Arabic, Amharic and Hebrew , and Bantu languages, spanning Swahili, Zulu, Shona and hundreds of other languages ​​used in Africa. The general consensus is between 50% to 90% of the language used now likely to be extinct by 2100.

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