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History of Ancient Roman Civilization


History of Ancient Roman Civilization
Roman civilization is the world that is located centrally in the city of Rome today. The Roman civilization developed Latia Tribes who settled in the valley of the River Tiber. Latia tribe called their home 'Latium'. Latium is a mountain valley area where the land is good for agriculture. Residents then called the Latin Latium. In the beginning, in the Latium region Latin is alive and thriving nation and a civilization that produces high value.

Rome is the center of their culture lies at the mouth of the river Tiber. Time of the founding of Rome is located in the valley of the River Tiber is not known with certainty. Legend said that Rome was founded two brothers of Greek descent Aenas, Remus and Romulus.

"The old bnews, Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus in 750. Remus and Romulus the son of Rhea silva, Aenas derivatives-a Trojan hero who can escape the Trojans defeated and burned by the Jujani "

The Romans had faith in the gods, like those in Greece. It's just the gods in roman different than in Greece. The gods are believed by the Romans, among others:

1). Jupiter (king of the gods) 2. Juno (goddess of the household) 3. Minerus (goddess of knowledge) 4. Venus (goddess of beauty) 5. Mars (the god of war) 6. Neptenus (god of the sea) 7. Diana (goddess of the hunt) 8. Bacchus (the god of wine)
Roma managed to subdue the peoples who live around them one by one, either by road or street kekrasan peace. Until finally the Romans managed to master the whole of Central Italy.

Prior to that, approximately 492 years, Latium Region as a place dominated by the founding of Rome Etruskia kingdom, which is adjacent to north up to the year 500 BC. In the year 500 BC, the kingdom of Latium revolted against Etruskia and managed memerdekaan themselves and establish their own country a republic. Since then, Rome became a republic and head of state called consuls elected each year. Consul in addition to state authorities and the commander is also the chairman of the senate.

The Romans originally farmers, after defeating the ruling Etruskia later became the ruler of the territory manaklukan luasa to the Mediterranean Sea. This nation became the first farmer capitalist and materialist society. Aside from being a nation that likes to battle the Romans also amassed a fortune as venture capital. Membali their fields and then penggarapannya performed by slaves imported from the colonies.

Gaius Julius Caesar ruler to expand its territory to Germany, Belgium, Holland and even to cross the Channel to England Calis. Apart from being an absolute ruler Julius Caesar is also developing a new calendar called the Julian calendar. This calendar continues to be used until later updated by Gregory, later known as the Gregory calendar. Julius Caesar was assassinated by Brutus and Casinus who wanted a Republican form of government. However, the ideals of the people that did not work and still maintain a system of dictatorship. Julius Caesar's adopted son named Roman Oktvaianus can then re-mastered and ruled by a dictator.
In his power, Octavian lot surrounded by smart people, so he can rule for a long time. Octavian by the Senate was given the title "Augustus" which means "the Most Venerable". With stability during the reign of Emperor Octavianus the field of culture began to receive attention.

 Roman culture had basic elements of Greek culture and Etrusia. This means that the Roman culture is the result of a combination of Greek culture and Etrusia, tanapa there are elements of Roman culture itself. At the time of Octavian, the Roman people see things from the point of usefulness. Roman view of life is to give color to the religious life. Fitting those expressed by Cicero, that religion is for them not to educate men to virtue, but a man healthy and wealthy. With a practical view of life has become a major feature of the Roman people.

In the field of science, the Romans are not the creator of the theories, but implementing the theory that has existed since ancient Greece. With this chain which seemed to break in the development of science becomes grows back. When the Greek scholars are theorists, the Roman scholar is expert practice.
Octavianus period is a period of refinement and culture of Roman art. Influence of Greek culture since the strong start to the year 146 BC along with the effort to defeat the Romans in the Mediterranean. During Roman rule, Roman art spread to Europe and the Mediterranean.

Roman art is actually a mixing of the two elements of art and culture, which is an area that is Roman and Greek art Etruskia power. On this cultural hekakatnya not come from ordinary people melinkan of the nobility. Class of great artists, such as those found in Greece, Rome does not exist. Indeed the Romans brought artists from Greece. Therefore, the influence of the Roman Greece is very strong. Politics and art and culture of Rome under the Etruskia. Thus the Roman art is essentially a blending of cultural elements Etruskia and Greece which became a new cultural arts.

The Romans like to create things on a large scale because they like something grand, luxurious, and monumental, as well as attract attention. All the work culture, especially the works of art, whether it be the art of building, sculpture or relief, as well as his art made completely besr, majestic, and full of trimmings. The Romans created a masterpiece menggumkan building techniques, such as building water channels (Aquaduct), bridges, large buildings and market halls, buildings for sports and performing arts (Thermen, theater, amphitheater). In addition to the above, there are also banguan persemayam temple to the god. The Romans continued the knowledge of the Greeks, among others, construction of buildings with arches to make the rooms to be spacious.

Building a dome roof for the first time created around the year 30 BC to the building in Baaie Thermae. They are also building public buildings such as roads. The highway is the famous street Via Apia. The houses are built the temple deity or large size. Temples that are large, among others, Paste Jupiter (the 6th century BC), Appolo and Venus in Rome. For each building the temple in Tinga-use poles. Rod roof pillars used to use the column with characteristics such Yunanni Doria, Ionia, and Korinthia.

The Romans are also experts in making sculpture, especially sculpture half a chest or a portrait. Face shape is made with great accuracy, while the body and the other is more simple. Skills to make this sculpture relate to the habits of the nation's leading families who like to make a statue of Roman ancestors in large quantities and very thorough. Usually nenak ancestor statues kept in the home and placed in a special room called the Atrium. Atrium is also equipped with the altar.

Romans in making sculpture has the same habits with the Greeks. In sculpture, the Romans always mematungkan authority figures, political figures and scholars. A lot of authority figures, political figures and scholars who serve as a background in sculpture as the face of Julius Caesar character, August, Tuchidides, Demosthenes, Caracalla, and others. Picture the faces of the figures are in addition to dipatungkan also depicted on a coin.

The Romans also delighted in the beauty of her home. Wall of the house decorated with a painting to give the impression area. Adorn the walls of this unusual activity on the walls by painting landscapes and buildings that house as if seen from the window. Painting on the walls of the house by the Romans turned out to imitate the Greeks. Thus the way to paint a painting done by the Romans memdapat basar influence of Greece. Of the art of painting on this wall are found relics of Roman society is the result of culture. One of the many cultural relics are relics of a house wall paintings found in Pompeii. Other relics are in Rome depicting the bride and her friends are preparing for the marriage ceremony. In addition to the wall of the house, painting is also found on bowls, vases, plates and place flowers.

The Romans are pleased to make the building a monumental lead this nation rich with the results of monuments and buildings of the temple. The monument was created by the Romans in the form of the gate of triumph or victory pole. Digunaakn building this monument to commemorate a historical event. At the monument was given banguan reliefs depicting the victory of events. There are monuments of art in Rome and the Roman colonies in some areas.

Constitutional changes of the Roman republic to empire did not loosen the spirit form and cultural development of the people of Rome to establish the building of monumental buildings. Only, if the supporters of the republic of arts and culture made by the nobles. However, after becoming the empire, which supports art and culture is the class of the palace. Since the emperor August, art and culture tend to form the art of ancient elbih are oriented in Greece. Each Roman emperor who ruled beruapa always leave the building arts and culture monuments. Habits by kiasar-emperor was done as a means to show his services to the state. So since kiasar-emperor in power, many large and magnificent buildings was established by using the material of marble.

Relics of Roman art at the time of empire building is of very much. Banguan-banguan monmen include:
1. Temple of Zeus at Olympia established.
2. Temple of Jupiter in Ba'albek Heliopalitanus (syria)
3. Pantheon is a temple which is then used for the church.
4. Mousoleum in Rome founded in 175 BC.
Mousoleum is building a beautiful tomb. On the side of the room Mousoleum dihiasai ddengan various beautiful ornaments.
5. Theater at Pompeii, solona, ​​and Asperados.
6. Amphitheater
Amphpiteater is a fusion of two pieces of theater that is used for the show to complain to the castle and gladiator fights, where the audience sits around, the more backward the higher. Amphipater at the time of the emperor Vespasian (695 BC) used to show war as on the high seas and the Circus (circus), a place to race horses pull two-wheeled cart.
7. Thermen
A bathing place with an aqueous bath spaces arrow, watery hot and cold.
8. Building castles
9. Gate kemenengan
10. The pole victory

In the Gothic period (100 - 1400 AD), Roman culture is inseparable from the development of the Christian religion. Christian or Nazarene religion has actually grown since the reign of Tiberius. Religion is published by Jesus (Jesus) of Nazareth, who was born in Palestine. Christianity is different from the belief that the Roman people poltheis. Christianity has a monotheistic faith. By considerations of political and state security, Tiberius sentenced Jesus to death in the year 33. But Jesus' death does not mean Christianity vanish from kehiduapan Roman society, on the contrary.

After Jesus was crucified on the Mount Isa or Prophet Gologota, Christianity evolved to Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and to Rome. Nearly three centuries the followers of Christianity in fear and being chased by the Romans. In the year 395 established Christianity as the state religion. Of the adherents gradually arose a form of ecclesiastical groups are arranged according to organizations in the Imperium Romanum (Roman ruler). Christian art of the Gothic period experiencing barriers caused by the displacement of Konsatantinopel government to Byzantium. Roman Empire has split into the Western Roman and Byzantine. Collapse of the Western Roman year 335 AD

When the Romans are still hostile to the followers of Christian religion, in Rome itself is secretly developing sembuyi Katamba art. Since then the birth of art catacombs which marks the birth meruapakn early Christian art. Itself a catacomb of underground tombs.

Later in Roman society during the Gothic has always been the habit to gather in the tunnel space with the aim of holding religious activities. From the frequent gatherings are held, then developed the habit of people to decorate the walls with ancient motifs. Classical motifs drawn within the walls of this tunnel, and then displaced by the development of modern motives or new. The new motifs are formed as human beings and animals symbolically represented the interests of the Christian religion. This early Christian artwork among other paintings of Christ as a "good shepherd". In general, the develops the art catacombs are not artists. For those who are able to express the meaning erpenting and ideas through painting, and as their devotion to Christianity. However, it was "artists" these catacombs became a pioneer in medieval art nonrelistik.

When the church had independence back in the 4th century, and made Christianity the official religion, the church began the development of art banguan. At that time, the architects built the church by using the basic concept of the art building to the Roman basilica, a building for public meetings rectangular. The next development is the bell tower of the church buildings on the bad-6.

Arts building on the church building is a building with a floor plan centered geraja and using floor plans and vaulted basilica with elongated or flat ceiling or a curved cross. Examples of art in the church building is a church building in Mantua and the church St.Andrea St.Novella in Feirence.

ANCIENT EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION

Ancient Civilizations of Europe there are three, namely the Greek civilization, Roman civilization, and civilization of Crete Island.

A. Greek civilization

A.1 Location of geographical
Greece is located southeast tip of continental Europe. Most of the islands in the Aegean and Ionian Sea into Greek territory

A.2 Population
The Greeks formed from the mingling of peoples and settlers from the Caspian Sea and is composed of indigenous farmers.
They formed a group - a group of town called Polis. The policies are well-known are: Athens, Sparta and Thebes.

A.3 Arts
In the Hellenistic period built many temples. And the famous Temple of Zeus and Acroplis. They have also been able to build a theater that can accommodate 15,000 fans. Satranya art was well developed. Author of the famous Greek literature is Homer with his work entitled Illyas.
A.4 Greek Science
Greece has had a wide range of technologies, including:
1. Creating a sailboat.
2. Making things out of clay.
3. Arsitektus producing works such as the Temple of Zeus.
4. Develop industry and commerce.
5. Produce metal objects for the war.

A.5 Government and Law
Leading poleis in Greece:
1. Athens led the Greek polis than the year 450-404 BC, at this period of life in a democratic society, freedom of thought and work. And emerging philosophers of the well-known: Socrates.
2. Polis Sparta, ruled Greece from the year 404 BC. The Spartans ruled the military and violence. At this time the science did not develop
3. 371 Greek polis ruled SMolis Thebe Thebe defeated SpartaAnatara poleis policy has always been at war and eventually became lemah.Yunani Greece was overrun by the Macedonian King Philip in 338-336 BC.

 A.6 Philosophy

The ideas and works of Greek philosophy, have been translated and studied until now. The Greek philosopher is a drafter who laid the foundations of the philosophy of mind philosophy of the Greeks Eropa.Hasil widely translated and interpreted by the philosophers of Islam, and Islam is the mind through kesusteraan Greek philosophy into the Persian and other Asian countries.

The characteristics of Greek Philosophy:
• The method of logical thinking, rational and systematic
• How the investigation of natural phenomena down to the details. This philosophy produces real results in terms of social and natural sciences.

Greek philosopher
• Socrates, with his doctrine of Science Policy (philosophical ethics) or morality with logic as a basis for discussing,
• Plato, the doctrine of administrative sciences and law.
• Aristotle, with his teaching in the fields of biology and philosophy so often referred to as a biologist and philosophy.
• Hippocrates, the teaching physician regarding the code of conduct (oath doctors)

A.7. Trust the Greeks
Trust the Greeks were worshiping the gods, including:
• Zeus, father of the gods who controlled the heavens and the earth
• Hera, goddess of marriage
• Ares, god of war
• Hermes, the god of trade
• Aphrodite, goddess of beauty

B. Roman Civilization

B.1. Geographic Location
Roman is an ancient place in Europe is the source of Western culture.
Located on the Peninsula Apenina (now Italy). Its boundaries are:
• North side of the peninsula with the mainland of Europe continued Apenina contained the Alps as a natural boundary that extends.
• Next to the North West that separates Italy with France.
• North side separates Italy with Switzerland and Austria.
• Eastern Sea with Yugoslavia.

B.2. Development of Roman History

(A) Period 1000-510 BC Age of Empire
At this time Apenina peninsula inhabited by a nation of immigrants from the Caspian Sea, while in the southern part inhabited by the Phoenicians and Greeks. Mixing between them occurs, hence the birth of the Romans

The city of Rome was founded by Vergilius in his Aenens, the city of Rome was founded in 1754 BC. City of Rome founded by Romulus and children Aeneis Latinus's daughter Lavinia (king of Latinum) who killed his twin brother Remus.

Roman Empire was ruled a king who doubles as a high-warlord and judges. King assisted in running the government by the Senate, which consists of 300 classes patricier (nobles). Rome became the Republican-controlled state of the nobility (aristocracy)
(B) Period of the Republic Period 510 BC -31
At this time the Roman Republican form of government is run by two Council elected by the people. Then formed board comprising:
• Senate, the nobility
• House of Representatives, the majority of the nobility, only four groups of ordinary people. And 4 has a veto right.

Frequent conflicts between the nobility and common people so that the layers of people to flee to the mountains. This causes the nobility suffer. As a result, layers of people called and held talks that resulted in an agreement of equal rights as outlined in the "Twaalftafelenwet" which is 12 stone table legislation.

(C) The period 31 BC - 476 AD the Empire Period

Emperors who ruled were:
• Caesar Octavianus Augustus Caesar and the title of Princeps Civitas (the highest elected citizens, a fair and wise) is the foundation stone of the Roman Empire. Territory includes North Africa, West Asia, and most powerful Eropa.Kaisar Octavianus until AD 14, he inherited the important thing is the beginning of the Christian calendar to coincide with the birth of Jesus.
• The next Roman Emperor Nero (54-68 AD), Emperor Nero famously cruel and kill the Christians.
• Emperor Caligula, famed ruthlessness
• Vesvasianus Emperor (69-79 AD), famous for its oppression of the Jews in Palestine, so that the Jews were expelled from the country and spread to parts of the world
• Hardianus Emperor (117-138 AD)
• Emperor Constantine the Great (306-337M)
• Emperor Theodosius (378-395M).
At the time of Theodosius the Romans were divided into two: the West with a capital of Roman and Byzantine with its capital of Constantinople. Western Roman fell in 476 AD by Odoakar a German mercenary army commander, Byzantines fell in 1453 AD into the hands of the Turks and changed to Istanbul.

B.3. The results of Roman Culture

Roman culture is a blend of ancient Greek and Roman culture. For example:
• The names of the Gods: Zeus replaced Jupiter, Venus Aphrodite replaced, replaced Ares Mars.
• The names of the months:
a) January = Jenus is two-faced god,
b) February = Februa dinner party to welcome the new year and the Roman numerals
c) September = septe which means 7
d) October = Okto which means 8.
e) At the time of Julius Caesar changed the order of months because he wanted to include his name ie July = 7,
f) Similarly, the Octavianus, August = 8. This caused by months kacaulah.
• State and Military Organization, education, art, philosophy of science, and law (Codex Justinian)

Valla, Lorenzo

Valla, Lorenzo (lōrān'tsō väl'lä) [key], c.1407-57, Italian humanist. Valla knew Greek and Latin well and was selected by Pope Nicholas V to translate Herodotus and Thucydides into Latin. . From the early work, he was vice eager for a new humanist who seeks to learn the language and educational reforms. Of the final 14. Mon through 16 .., the humanists study of classical texts of antiquity, believed that the spirit of Greco-Roman times have been lost in the centuries to rise .. By concentrating on the humanistic disciplines of poetry, rhetoric, ethics, history, and politics, they claimed to be specific for human dignity and do .. In the pioneering work of criticism, Valla proved that the long suspect Donation of Constantine (see Constantine, Donation of) was a forgery because the Latin text was written four centuries after Constantine's death., A dialogue in three books are fun to analyze and offer a humanist condemnation of scholasticism and monastic asceticism. in tone, he was received with hostility. De libero arbitrio suggests that previous theological dispute over the divine and human will not be resolved. His major works, the six books that Elegantiae linguae latinae (1444), was a brilliant defense of classical Latin philology at which he contrasted the elegance of the ancient Romans' work, particularly from Cicero and Quintilian with clumsiness-century and of the Latin Church .. This enormously influential work ran to 60 editions before 1536. Valla of the investigation into the textual errors in the Vulgate spurred Erasmus to conduct a study of the Greek New Testament.

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