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History of the Kingdom of Majapahit


Majapahit was an ancient kingdom in Indonesia which had stood from about 1293 to 1500 AD This kingdom reached its peak during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, who ruled from 1350 until 1389. Majapahit kingdom is the kingdom of the last Hindu-Buddhist master of the Malay Peninsula and is regarded as one of the greatest country in history unfolds Indonesia.Kekuasaannya in Java, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulu Archipelago, Manila (Saludung), east to Indonesia, although the power is still being debated.

Historiography

There is little physical evidence remains of Majapahit, and the history is unclear. The main sources used by historians is Pararaton ('The Book of Kings') in Kawi language and Nagarakretagama in Old Javanese. Pararaton mainly told Ken Arok (founder of the Kingdom Singhasari) but includes a few short sections of the formation of Majapahit. Meanwhile, Nagarakertagama a poem written in Old Javanese Majapahit golden age under the rule of Hayam Wuruk. After that, the thing that happens is not clear. In addition, there are several inscriptions in Old Javanese language and history of China and other countries.

The accuracy of all the disputed texts in Javanese. There is no denying that the resources they contain elements and non-historical myth. Some scholars such as C.C. Berg considers all of the text rather than past records, but has a supernatural meaning in terms of the future can tell. Nevertheless, many scholars who argue that the outline of these sources can be accepted as consistent with historical records of China, especially the list of royal authority and state that appears to be quite sure.

History The establishment of the Majapahit

After Singhasari drove Srivijaya from Java as a whole in 1290, Singhasari become the most powerful empire in the region. This is a concern of Kublai Khan, ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in China. He sent a messenger named Meng Chi [9] to Singhasari demanding tribute. Kertanagara, the last ruler of the kingdom Singhasari refused to pay tribute and envoys to humiliate her and cut off his ear damage.

 Kublai Khan was angry and then dispatched a large expedition to Java in 1293. At that time, Jayakatwang, duke of Karachi, was killed Kertanagara. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja, Jayakatwang give amnesty to Raden Wijaya, son Kertanegara, who came to surrender. Raden Wijaya then given Pull forest. He opened the forest and build a new village. The village was named Majapahit, whose name is taken from a maja fruit, and a sense of "bitterness" of the fruit. When the Mongols arrived, Wijaya allied with the Mongols to fight Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya Mongolnya allies turned on them, forcing them pull back its troops home as chaotic as they are in foreign territory. [11] [12] It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds to come home, or they should be forced to wait six months in a foreign island.

The exact date of which is used as the delivery date is the day of the coronation of the Majapahit kingdom as king Raden Wijaya, namely on 10 November 1293. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The kingdom is in trouble. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, even though the rebellion was not successful. Slamet Muljana mahapatih Halayudha guess that was a conspiracy to overthrow the king trusted everybody, so that it can reach the highest positions in government. But after the death last rebel (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and jailed, and then sentenced to death. [12] Wijaya died in 1309.

Son and successor Wijaya, Jayanegara, is the ruler of the evil and immoral. He was called Kala Gemet, which means "weak villain". In 1328, Jayanegara killed by tabibnya, Tanca. Gayatri Rajapatni stepmother is supposed to replace, but Rajapatni chose to resign from the palace and become a priestess. Rajapatni appoint his daughter to become queen Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi Majapahit. During power Tribhuwana, Majapahit empire evolved into a bigger and well known in the area. Tribhuwana control of Majapahit until her death in 1350. He continued by his son, Hayam Wuruk.

The glory of Majapahit

Hayam Wuruk, also called Rajasanagara, Majapahit ruled from 1350 until 1389. In the Majapahit era reached its peak with the help of mahapatihnya, Gajah Mada. Under the command Gajah Mada (1313-1364), Majapahit control more territory. In 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit sea to attack Palembang, [2] led to the collapse of the remnants of the kingdom of Srivijaya.
According Kakawin Nagarakretagama Canto XIII-XV, Majapahit territory covering Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines [13]. However, natural and economic constraints indicate that the areas of power does not seem to be under centralized control of Majapahit, but are connected to each other by trade who may be a monopoly by the king [14]. Majapahit also has a relationship with Campa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even send an ambassador-envoys to China

The fall of Majapahit

 After reaching its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power gradually weakened. There seems to be a civil war (War Paregreg) in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, there has been a quarrel about the turn of the king in 1450's, and the great rebellion waged by a nobleman in 1468 [7]. In Javanese tradition there is a kronogram or candrasengkala which reads ilang kretaning earth vanished. This is supposedly a year sengkala end of Majapahit and should be read as 0041, the year 1400 Saka or 1478 AD. Sengkala meaning is "gone gone prosperity of the earth". However, the truth is illustrated by the death of Bre candrasengkala Kertabumi, the 11th king of Majapahit, by Girindrawardhana.

When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and missionaries had begun to enter the archipelago. At the end of the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th century, the influence of Majapahit in the archipelago began to decrease. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to emerge in the west of the archipelago. Historical records of Chinese, Portuguese (Tome Pires), and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been a transfer of power from the hands of the Hindu Majapahit into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 M.

Majapahit kings

Here is a list of the ruler of Majapahit. Note that there is a gap between government Rajasawardhana period (ruler-8) and Girishawardhana that may result from a succession crisis that solves the Majapahit royal family into two groups.

 1. Raden Wijaya, titled Kertarajasa Jayawardhana (1293 - 1309)
2. Kalagamet, titled Sri Jayanagara (1309 - 1328)
3. Sri Gitarja, titled Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (1328 - 1350)
4. Hayam Wuruk, titled Sri Rajasanagara (1350 - 1389)
5. Wikramawardhana (1389 - 1429)
6. Suhita (1429 - 1447)
7. Kertawijaya, holds a UB I (1447 - 1451)
8. Rajasawardhana, holds a UB II (1451 - 1453)
9. Purwawisesa or Girishawardhana, titled UB III (1456 - 1466)
10. Bhre Pandansalas, or Suraprabhawa, UB title IV (1466 - 1468)
11. Bhre Kertabumi, titled UB V (1468 - 1478)
12. Girindrawardhana, UB title VI (1478 - 1498)
13. Hudhara, UB title VII (1498-1518)

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