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Management Science


a. Definition

Management word derived from the ancient French menagement, which means "the art of carry and set up." [1] Management does not have an established definition and universally accepted. [2] Mary Parker Follett, for example, defines management as the art work done through people other. This definition means that a manager is responsible for managing and directing others to achieve organizational goals. [3] Ricky W. Griffin defines management as a process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling resources to achieve goals effectively and efficiently. Effective means that the goal can be achieved according to plan, while efficient means that the task was done correctly, organized and on schedule. [4]

b. Etymology

The word probably comes from the management of Italy (1561) maneggiare which means "control," especially in the context of controlling the horse, which is derived from the Latin manus, meaning "hand". [5] and adopted the French word from English into menagement, art that has meaning implement and manage. [1]

c. History of Management Science

Many of the difficulties that occur in tracing the history of management, but it is known that knowledge management has been around since thousands of years ago. This is evidenced by the pyramids in Egypt. [6] The Pyramid was built by more than 100,000 people over the past 20 years. The Giza Pyramids are built will not work if there is no one-regardless of what the term for it-the manager when planning what to do, organize the people as well as raw materials, lead and direct the workers, and establish appropriate controls to ensure that everything was done according to plans. Pyramid in Egypt. Construction of the pyramids could not have done this without someone to plan, organize and mobilize the workers, and controlling development.

Other management practices can be witnessed during the 1400's in the city of Venice, Italy, which was then the center of economy and trade. Residents of Venice developed an early form of business enterprise and do a lot of activities which is prevalent in today's modern organization. For example, in the Venetian arsenal, warships launched along the canal; at each stop, raw materials and halyard added to the vessel. It is similar to a model assembly lines developed by Henry Ford to assemble cars. In addition to the assembly line, the Venetian has a storage and warehousing systems to monitor the content, management of human resources to manage the workforce, and accounting systems to track income and expenses.

Daniel Wren divide the evolution of management thought in four phases, namely the initial thought, scientific management era, the era of social man, and the modern era. [7]

d. Thought initial management

Before the 20th century, there were two important events in management science. [2] The first incident occurred in 1776, when Adam Smith published a classical economic doctrine, The Wealth of Nations. In his book, he argued the economic advantages to be gained from the organization of the division of labor (division of labor), which details the work into specific tasks and repetitive. Using the pin manufacturing industry as an example, Smith said that with ten people each doing a specialized job-pin company can produce more than 48,000 safety pins in a day. However, if everyone works themselves completing each part of the job, it was great when they are able to produce ten pin a day. Smith concluded that division of labor can increase productivity by (1) increasing the skill and dexterity of each worker, (2) save the time wasted in the turnover duty, and (3) creating machines and other inventions that can save labor. [8]

The second important event that influenced the development of knowledge management is of the Industrial Revolution in England. The Industrial Revolution marks the beginning of the use of machines to replace human labor, which resulted in the displacement of production activities from the houses into a special place called the "factory." This move resulted in the managers when it takes a theory to help them predict demand, ensure adequate supplies of raw materials, assign tasks to subordinates, directing day-to-day activities, etc., so the science manajamen was developed by experts.


Reference

1. Oxford English Dictionary
2. Robbins, Stephen and Mary Coulter. , 2007. Management, 8th Edition. NJ: Prentice Hall.
3. Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People by Richard Barrett - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51.
4. Griffin, R. , 2006. Business, 8th Edition. NJ: Prentice Hall.
5. George Jr.. 1972. The History of Management Thought, ed. 2nd. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Prentice Hall. h.4
6. (UK) Wren, Daniel and Arthur Bedeian. , 2009. The Evolution of Management Thought
7. Smith, Adam. 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
8. Fayol, Henry. , 1949. Administration industrielle et generale.
9. Drucker, Peter. , 1946. Concept of Corporation. John Day Company.
10. Mintzberg 1973. The Nature of Managerial Work
11. Robert L. Katz. Skills of an Effective Administrator.

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