Blaise Pascal (1623 1662 AD) was born in Clermont-Ferrand on 19 June 1623. His father Etienne Pascal, royal adviser who later was appointed as the president of the Court of Aids at Clermont. His mother died when he was 3 years old, leaving him and his two sisters, Gilberte and Jacqueline. In 1631 the family moved to Paris.
Since the age of 12, she had invited him to attend regular gatherings mathematical discussion. His father taught him the language, especially Latin and Greek, but not mathematics. His father accidentally skipped math lesson to Pascal solely to lure the child's curiosity. He experimented with geometric forms, as well as finding geometrical standards and provide the name of the formula with his own name.
In 1640 the Pascal family moved to Rouen. At that time, he was taught by his father, Blaise worked with such intensity that his health deteriorated. His labor was not in vain, he finally managed to find a beautiful theorems in geometry.
Sometimes he called the theorem as "magical hexagram" a theorem about the similarities between the lines cross.'s Not a balance concern metrical form, but, more fundamentally, and importantly, the time it had never developed into a branch of mathematics - geometry projection. Pascal then set to a book, Essay on Conics, which finished in 1640, in which the magical hexagram becomes the main, a hundred propositions on the cone, also discussed the work of Apollonius, was remarkable not only because of age is still very young at the time (16 years), but also because of its treatment of tangency, and so on.
Adopting Jansenists and Port Royal convent
In 1646 Pascal's father had an accident and was treated at home. Some neighbors visit membesuk-chance a few were Jansenists, founded by Cornelis Jansen, a Dutch-born professor of theology at Louvain. A belief which is contrary to the teachings of the Jesuits. Pascal seems to be affected and become followers of Jansenists, and make it so against the teachings of Jesuits. Her sister, Jacqueline wished to join the Jansenist convent at Port Royal. Pascal's father, Etienne Pascal did not like it, then his family moved to Paris, but after his death in 1651 Jacqueline joined Port Royal. Pascal still enjoying the worldly life - along with his friends from among the nobility - spend the money inherited from his father. Finally in 1614, he was fully converted to Jansenism, and he commenced life in a convent osteriknya Port Royal.
In 1655 Antoine Arnauld, a prolific writer in defense of the doctrine of Jansenism, which was officially banned by the government Sorbonne as heretics, and Pascal took up his famous media in the Provincial Letters under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, which aims to defend teachings Jansenism. Them as if polemics between the two friends, from January 13, 1656, until March 24, 1657. The Provincial Letters Media beroplag thousands and circulated to all corners of Paris, whom the Jesuits tried to discover the author - even cleverly mocks those trying to uncover his true identity.
News about Pascal's personal life much terdengan after his entry at Port Royal. His sister, Gilberte saw her ascetic life. Pascal, in addition to not too happy to see his sister is busy with her children, was also annoyed with pembicaraannnya that only about women's affairs. 1658 began suffering headaches mounting, and he died on August 19, 1662.
When Pascal died leaving an unfinished writing about theology, the Pensees, an apology of Christianity, thus, only published 8 years later the monastery Port Royal in the form of incomplete and vague. A publication for a more authentic version first published in 1844. Who investigated the problem of Christian thought, of belief as opposed to because the will is free, and Knowledge-Early. Pascal explains the contradictions and moral problems of life, the doctrine of the Fall (revelation alone sufficient) that form the basis of trust and justification of the doctrine of the Atonement.
The Pensees, unlike the Provincial Letters, written directly by the author, the style of writing, which of course does not fit with his brilliance as a literary figure. The letters, however, has put Pascal into the history of literature with the great writers of France. The Pensees felt as if written by someone else, that seemed too concerned about religion. However, although different between the two, each remains an important books in the history of religious thought.
The works of Mathematical and Scientific
Pascal also wrote about the hydrostatic, which explains the experimental ¬ candy use the barometer to explain his theory of the Equilibrium of Liquids (Equilibrium of Fluids), which was not published until a year after his death. Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids extends Simon Stevin analysis of the hydrostatic paradox and straighten what is known as the last hydrostatic law: a fluid the pressure is transmitted equally in all directions (Pascal's principle). Pascal is considered important as the relationship between Theory of Liquids and Gases Objects Theory, and on the Amendment Form on them, later known as Theory of hydrodynamics.
Pascal theory gives effect to the mathematical theory Pascal started life at Port Royal which is used to overcome problems associated with the calculation of curves and circles, which should also be controlled by modern mathematicians. He published many theorems presented as a challenge to other mathematicians to solve, no one is answering. Then the answer came from John Wallis, Christopher Wren, Christian Huygens, and his friends, with no satisfactory results. Pascal finally publishes his own answer using the pseudonym Amos DettonviIle (later known as Louis de Montalte anagram), then mathematicians now often also call themselves by this name.
Mathematical theory of probability to be developed first when there is communication between Pascal and Pierre de Fermat were eventually discovered that both Pascal and Mathematical Probability theories have in common though each of them to remain independent. Pascal plans to write a paper about it, but again only footage left behind, which was published after his death. He never wrote a lengthy mathematical theory convoluted, but short writings are short, clear, and the immortal