Cleopatra VII Philopator (January 69 BC - August 12, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt, the last member of Ptolemaic dynasty. Although many other Egyptian queen who use his name, he is known as Cleopatra, and all the predecessors of the same name is almost forgotten.
He was the ruler of Egypt with her father Ptolemy XII, the brother of her husband at the same time: Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, and eventually her son Caesarion. Cleopatra overcame designed coup by supporters of his brother's alliance with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony continued. Cleopatra had 1 son of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony from the 3 children (two of which are twins).
Cleopatra committed suicide when Augustus (Octavian) and attacked the Egyptian throne, with his own hands by entering into a basket full of poisonous snakes (Asp / Cobra type of North African origin). Her story is often dramatized in various forms of work, including "Antony and Cleopatra" by William Shakespeare and some modern films.
Cleopatra met Caesar
Little is known about Cleopatra's childhood, but Cleopatra blooded Greek, not Egyptian. He was born in the early 69 Sm, child-3 of 6 people and was born in the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty. He has two older brothers and a younger sister and two younger brothers. He was born and raised in Alexandria which is the largest and most luxurious moment.
Kingdom of Cleopatra's father was not safe due to the pressures and conflicts from the outside and the power struggles and conflicts in such Pemenrintahan centralization and political corruption. It is leading the rebellion and the loss of Cyprus and Cyrenaica were caused during the reign of Ptolemy as one of the most deadly in the dynasty. As a child, Cleopatra has seen in her own family disputes. It is said that his father survived two assassination attempts when seoragn waiter found a deadly poisonous snake in his bed and waiters wine tasting master the servant who later died.
Eldest sister, Tryphaena Roman Empire due to the debt burden is too high, but it is still hoped that the Romans did not conquer Egypt. Circumstances that led Ptolemy XII was expelled people from Alexandria who fled to Rome. In 58 Sm, his mother, Cleopatra VBerenice IV with the help of the Roman governor of Syria, Aulus Gabinis for a year until her mother died, and Berenice IV ruled alone.
Ptolemy XII overthrow the oldest daughter in the year 55 BC and executed his son, Berenice IV. Other Cleopatra's sister, took the throne and Tryphaena not long before he died, which left Cleopatra with her husband and her brother, Ptolemy XII as the successor to the throne.
Cleopatra was also trying to poison so he started using tastemakers.
When he was a teenager, he watched his own father and his father fall into a puppet to take over the government with his son, who controlled
From her father, Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra knew the power of his ancestors. Ancestors have done great conquests almost 3 centuries ago.
Ascend the throne
Ptolemy XII died in March 51 Sm, making Cleopatra, who was about 18 years old and Ptolemy XII, who was about 12 years as joint leaders. First 3 years of their rule is difficult because of economic problems, famine, flooding of the Nile and political conflict. Although Cleopatra married her sister, he showed that he has no desire to share power with him.
In August of the year 51 BC, their relationship is broken. Cleopatra lower Ptolemy name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which are beyond the Ptolemaic tradition that states that subordinate women leaders by male leaders. This results in a secret group who are not included in the court, led by the eunuch Pothinus, lowering Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy leader in 48 Sm (or earlier, and there is a 51 Sm decree in the name of Ptolemy himself). He tried to commit rebellion around Pelusium, but she was forced to flee Egypt with her sister left, Arsinoe.
Back Up the Throne
When Cleopatra out of Egypt, Pompey involve themselves in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 Sm, Pompey fled from the forces of Julius Caesar to Alexandria, Pompey was murdered by one of his former opsirnya who now works for the Ptolemaic. He was beheaded in front of his wife and son, who were on the ship he had just descended. Ptolemy thought that he had ordered the death of Julius Caesar Pompey to please. This is a big mistake Ptolemy. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy gave Pompey's head. Caesar who saw this very angry due to the fact that although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was consul of Rome and the widower of Julis Caesar's child, Julia. Caesar controlled the Egyptian capital and make the referee of claims between Ptolemy and Cleopatra. and seek asylum. Ptolemy was 15 years old at that time and waited for him. On September 28, 48 BC
Cleopatra took this opportunity and return to the palace and meet with Caesar. It is believed that Caesar was fascinated with his pace, and Cleopatra became lovers. 9 months after their first meeting, Cleopatra gave birth to a baby. At this time, Caesar left Egypt plans to incorporate and support the claims of Cleopatra on the throne. After a short civil war, Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile and Caesar Cleopatra returns to his throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as new deputy leader.
Cleopatra relationship with Julius Caesar
Despite the age difference of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar for 30 years, Cleopatra and Caesar became lovers during Caesar's stay in Egypt in 48 BC to 47 BC. They met when the 21-year-old Cleopatra and Caesar was 50 years old. On June 23, 47 BC, Cleopatra melahirkanPtolemeus Caesar (called "Caesarion" which means "little Caesar"). Cleopatra claimed Caesar as his father and hopes to make the child as his heir, but Caesar refused and preferred grandson, Octavian. Caesarion meant to inherit Egypt and Rome, uniting east and west.
Cleopatra and Caesarion visited Rome in the year 47 BC to 41 BC and was present when Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC. Before or after the murder, he returned to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died due to deteriorating health, Cleopatra made Caesarion successor. To keep and Caesarion, her sister Arsinoe died.
Relationship with Mark Antony Cleopatra
Anthony and Cleopatra, made by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
In the year 42 BC. Mark Antony, one of the people in power in Rome after Caesar's death, summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus meeting to answer questions his loyalty. Cleopatra arrived and alluring Antony causing Anthony spent the winter of 41 BC-40SM him in Alexandria. On December 25, 40 BC, she gave birth to two children, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II.
Four years later, in 37 BC, Antony visited Alexandria again for the Parthian war. He renewed relationship with Cleopatra, and from then on Alexandria became his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in Suetonius suggests this), although he was at the time married to Octavia Minor. He and Cleopatra had a son named Ptolemy Philadelphus.
With a donation of Alexandria in 34 BC, as well as Anthony attacks on Armenia, Cleopatra and Caesarion dimahkohtai as deputy leader of Egypt and Cyprus. Alexander Helios became the leader of Armenia, Media, and Parthia; Cleopatra Selene II became the leader of Cyrenaica and Libya. Ptolemy Philadelphus became ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Sicily. Cleopatra also got the title of "Queen of the King".
Anthony considered bad attitude by the Romans, and Octavian convinced the Senate to go to war with Egypt. In the year 31 BC, Anthony troops facing attacks the Roman fleet on the coast of Actium. With the battles of Actium, Octavian attacked Egypt. With no other refugees who fled, Anthony committed suicide with his sword at tanggal12 menusukan August 30 BC.
Picture of Cleopatra by Reginald Arthur's death.
Mark Antony committed suicide causes Cleopatra also committed suicide. It is not known how he died, but according to legend, he decided to commit suicide after he realized that he had failed to achieve its objectives. He died bitten by a poisonous snake let himself inserted into the basket of figs. In the last seconds of his death, he expressed his destiny as a goddess.
Child Cleopatra, Caesarion claim as pharaoh of Egypt, but Octavian won first. Caesarion was captured and executed, his fate reportedly locked by Octavian famous words: "Two Caesar too much." This put an end to the line of the Egyptian pharaoh. 3 children of Cleopatra and Antony forgiven and taken back to Rome and they were treated by Anthony's wife, Octavia Minor.
Waitress Cleopatra, Iras and Charmion also committed suicide. Anthony's daughter, Octavia forgiven and also his son, Anthony Iullus. His oldest son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus, killed while pleading for his life in Caesarium.