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Biography of Charles Darwin~The inventor of the theory of evolution


Right along with the birth of Abraham Lincoln, February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution inventor within the meaning of natural selection at the age of sixteen entered the University of Edinburgh to study medicine, but both medical and anatomical science considers that make bored.

Shortly thereafter he moved to Cambridge to learn elements of office administration. Even so, hunting and riding horses in Cambridge digemarinya much more than learning science. And even so, he could attract attention yet still one of the Grand Masters are encouraged to be involved in the investigation voyage aboard HMS Beagle as a naturalist.

At first his father objected to this appointment. She thought it was kind of a trip for Darwin alone pretext reluctant to serious work. Fortunately, later persuaded his father and bless the journey which eventually turned out to be the most valuable way in the history of European science.

Biography of Charles Darwin - The inventor of the theory of evolution

Darwin began to set sail aboard the Beagle in 1831. At that time he was only twenty-two years. During the five-year voyage, the ship the Beagle sailed the world, scour the coast of South America in an exciting pace, investigating the silent remote Galapagos islands, mengambah Pacific islands, in the Indonesian Ocean and the southern Atlantic Ocean. In perkelanaan, Darwin witnessed many natural wonders, visit the primitive tribes, found a large number of fossils, researching various kinds of plants and animals. Furthermore, he made a lot of notes about what passes in front of his eyes. These records are the basic ingredient for almost all of his work in the future. From these records are essentially ideas, and events and experiences so supporting his theories.

1. Travel with Beagle
Survey Beagle lasted five years. Darwin spent two thirds of his time to menjelajani mainland. He investigates the appearance of diverse geological, fossil and living organisms, and meet a wide range of people, both indigenous and colonial societies. He methodically collect a large number of specimens, many of them new to science. This confirms his reputation as a naturalist and make it one of the pioneers in the field of ecology, in particular understanding biokoenosis. The records show a lengthy terincinya gifts to build and form the theoretical basis for his work in the future, as well as provide an understanding of the social anthropological, political depth areas he visited.

The voyage, Darwin read Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology (Principles of Geology), which explains the geological appearance as a result of a gradual process during various periods long, and wrote a letter to his family that he saw land forms "as if he has the eyes of Lyell ": he saw the plains of the thin layer (shingle) is steep and the shells on the beaches of Patagonia as an ascending. In Chile he had a record earthquake and foundations sea shells washed up on the high tide showing that the land had been rising, and even in places high in the Andes, he can collect sea shells. He theorized that coral atoll atoll-formed in the volcanic mountains sank, a notion that was confirmed when he saw the Beagle probe Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

In South America he found fossils of extinct giant mammals, teermasuk megatheria and gliptodon in layers that do not show signs or catastrophic climate change. Occasionally he mengangggap they are similar to species in Africa, but after a cruise Richard Owen showed that the remains came from the animals associated with the living creatures in the same place. In Argentina the two species of rhea has separate regions but overlap. In the Galápagos Islands Darwin found that the mockingbirds differ from one island to another, and when he returned to Britain kepadnya shown that turtles Galápagos tortoises and finches also vary depending on the species of each island they inhabit. Animals Australian marsupial rat kangaroo and the platypus are the animals very odd that he thinks "People who do not believe ... probably would have said 'Surely two distinct Creator has worked'." He was puzzled by what he saw, and ssementara in the first edition of The Voyage of the Beagle (Beagle voyage in) he describes the distribution of species by Charles Lyell's idea of ​​"centers of creation", in the recent editions of the Journal, he begin to imagine the use of fauna Galápagos Islands as evidence for evolution: "people might actually suspect that a small number of native birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different purposes."

Three indigenous missionaries returned by Beagle to Tierra del Fuego. They have diberadabkan in England for two years, but their relatives in Darwin's eyes looked "wild", just above the beast. Within a year, the missionaries had returned to their hard lives and primitive, but they prefer it and do not want to go back to the civilized world. This experience and the rejection of Darwin against slavery and other inhuman treatment were seen in other places, such as mistreatment of the natives by British colonists in Tasmania assured that there is no moral justification whatsoever for treating other people badly based on the concept race. Now he argues that human beings are not too far away from the animal, in contrast to what is believed by his fellow clergy.

From ages 12 to 17 years, Newton was educated at Kings School The school is located in Grantham (his signature is still present in the school library). His family issued a Newton of the school on the grounds that he was a farmer alone, however, Newton does not look like his new job. But in the end after convincing his family and his mother with the help of his uncle and mentor, Newton can finish school at the age of 18 with a satisfactory grade.

While on the ship, Darwin suffered seasickness. In October 1833 he got a fever in Argentina, and in July 1834, while returning from the Andes to Valparaíso, he fell ill and had to stay in bed for a month. Since 1837 Darwin repeatedly suffered from stomach pains, vomiting, severe boils, palpitations, trembling and a variety of other symptoms. All these symptoms are particularly influenced at times when he was depressed, such as when attending meetings or dealing with controversy regarding his theory. The cause of Darwin's illness was not known during his lifetime, and attempts to take care not had much success. Speculation has recently stated that he was in South America Chagas disease due to insect bites, which cause problems later. Other causes may include problems of psycho-biological and Ménière's disease.

2. Careers in science, theory formation
While still in the voyage, Henslow carefully strengthening his former pupil's reputation by giving the number's selected naturalists access to the fossil samples and printed copies of geological writings When the Beagle returned on 2 October 1836, Darwin has become well known in scientific circles. He visited his family in Shrewsbury and his father developed the savings that can be a scientist Darwin supported with its own funds. Darwin then went to Cambridge and Henslow persuaded that work on botanical descriptions of modern plants he had collected.

After that Darwin around to agencies in London to find the best naturalists available to describe the collection of another collection for publication in a timely manner. Charles Lyell was very excited to see Darwin on October 29 and introduced him to an anatomist Richard Owen on the rise. After working on a collection of fossil bones Association of Surgeons of Darwin on his kingdom, Owen caused a big surprise by revealing that some of it comes from rats and similar animals that have been extinct giant creep. It enhances the reputation of Darwin. With the enthusiastic support of Lyell, Darwin delivered the first paper to the Geological Society London on January 4, 1837, and said that the land of South America was rising slowly. On the same day Darwin presents examples of mammals and birds to the zoological Society of London. The animals mammals were taken by George R. Waterhouse. Although the birds seems like a new idea came later, John Gould, an expert on birds reveal that what Darwin suspected as a "wren", blackbirds, and finches are somewhat different from the Galápagos finches all are, but each each is a different species. The others in the Beagle, including FitzRoy also been collecting these birds and more careful with their records, to allow Darwin finds from the island where each species was derived.

Charles lived in London with his brother, Erasmus, a free thinker. At a dinner parties he met with a savant who argued that God had set a previous life with the laws of nature, rather than with the magical creatures for a while. Friend of his brother, Ms.. Harriet Martineau is a writer whose stories promoting reforms Whig Malthusian Law of the poor. Scientific circles excited by ideas of transmutation of species that are associated with controversial radical upheaval. Darwin would prefer Dear friends, professors of Cambridge, though his ideas beyond their belief that natural history must justify religion and social order.

On February 17, 1837, Lyell used his presidential address at the Geographical Society to present Owen's findings to determine the date the fossils Darwin, and suggests the inference that the species of animals that have ever pu is related to the species of the existing now in the same place. At the same meeting Darwin was elected to the Association's Board. He has been invited by FitzRoy to contribute a paper in the Journal based on his field notes as part of the natural history of the captain of the Beagle voyage reports. Now he is immersed in writing a book on the geology of South America. At the same time he was speculating on transmutation in his Red Notebook that have been completed at the beginning of the Beagle. An other projects start getting reports of the experts about the collection published as a series of publications Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle (Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle), and Henslow used his contacts to arrange delivery for £ 1,000 from the Treasury to sponsor. Darwin completed writing his Journal around 20 June when King William IV died and the Victorian era began. In mid-July he began the book notes "B" was the secret of transmutation, and develop hypotheses that where every island of the Galápagos Islands have their own types of tortoises, it all comes from a species of turtle and has adapted to the island different islands in different ways.

It is worth noting, Darwin's theory was formulated without any backrest genetic theory or even he does not know anything about that knowledge. In Darwin's time, no one understands how a specific particulars next generation. Although Gregor Mendel is finalizing the laws of heredity in the early years coincided with the time Darwin published his writing and make history, Mendel's work that support Darwin's theory is so perfect, almost entirely ignored Mendel people until 1900, when Darwin's theory was so established and steady. Thus, our modern understanding about evolution - which is a combination of genetic science descent with the law of natural selection - more complete than the proffered theory of Darwin.

Darwin's influence on human thought in sekah. In terms of pure science, of course, he is committing a revolutionary all aspects of biology. Natural selection really has a very broad principles and fundamental, and various experiments have been done in various areas of application such as anthropology, sociology, political science and economics.

Perhaps even more important influence on Darwin's thinking in terms of religion than to science or sociology. In Darwin's time, and for many years thereafter, many Christian faithful adherents believe that accepting Darwin's theory means lower degree of confidence in the religion. Their concern is probably unfounded though obviously many other factors that cause erosion so because of religious beliefs. (Darwin himself became a secular).

Even on the basis of secular, Darwinian theory lead to major changes in the way people think about happenings in their world they (the human race it seems) as a whole is no longer occupy a central position in the natural scheme of nature's creatures once they akukan. Now we have to see ourselves as just one part of the many creatures and we acknowledge the possibility that once the tempo to be displaced. As a result of the investigation Darwin, views Heraclitus who said, "There is nothing permanent except change" becomes more widely accepted. Successful evolution as a general explanation of human origins has been more firmly established belief in the ability of science to answer questions of the physical world (although not all human problems and human). Darwinian terms, "The strong beating the weak" and "struggle for life" had become a part of our vocabulary.

Indeed, Darwin's theory will be explained as well though as Darwin had never lived. Moreover, the measure of what is produced Wallace, this is quite some truth, any more than the particulars contained in the register book. However, are the writings of Darwin which has revolutionized biology and antropolgi and he who has changed our view of the place of humanity in the world.

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