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Biography of Gregory Pincus (1903-1967)


Gregory Pincus was born in 1903 in Woodbine, New Jersey, the son of Russian-Jewish half-breed. He graduated from Cornell in 1924, and received his doctorate from Harvard in 1927.

After that he was involved in the investigation work at various institutions, including Harvard and Cambridge and a professor at Clark for several years. In 1944 he helped Worcester Foundation for biological investigation, and many years after that the lead laboratory. He is the author of over 250 scientific papers as well as a book The Conquest of Fertility, conquest of fertility, published in 1965.

Contraceptive pills, and American biologist Gregory Pincus held an important role in this matter. The pill has two meanings in terms of importance. In a world overwhelmed dangers to rapid population growth, the pill serves as a deterrent.


Although less direct, but no less revolutionary, the pill has caused in terms of changes in sexual desire. Anyway widely known that more than fifteen years, or about that time, there has been a "revolution" in the attitude of sexual intercourse in the United States.

Undoubtedly, many of the political, economic and social revolution that has affected, but the main factor that most clearly due to the pill. At first, the fear of that bunting is not expected, a factor that affects many women in terms of having sex before marriage, or after marriage. Suddenly, she offered an opportunity to have sex without fear become pregnant. By itself, this situation brings a change in attitude and behavior on both sides.

There may be objections to the development of "Enovid" (first pill pregnant preventer) that it is not as important as people think, because the prevention of pregnancy is known beforehand. The argument was put aside differences between contraceptive methods and effective techniques that can be psychologically acceptable. Before there was the development of a pill, contraceptive most recommended by experts is "diaphragm." Indeed, the diaphragm is safe and reliable, but the practice, the majority of women are reluctant to use it. Quite surprisingly, when the pill for the first time try, thousands of women are ready to take the risk of taking a way that has never been tried (and may contain hazards) to prevent bunting rather than "diaphragm" is clearly apparent safety.

And people can also consider the development of "Enovid" not a victory really impressive because swallowing pills involve risks to health and may in time soon in the future pill method will be replaced by a newer and through devices or drugs more sip. However, a natural method of contraception future will only give little improvement because the pill is widely accepted and has been satisfying the parties concerned. (Notably, the fifteen-year period - the period of millions of ordinary Americans to swallow the pill regularly - their passions increased substantially. Fact alone has shown that the pill is not the principal source of health problems). History will have to record the progress and "Enovid" in the 1950's is a groundbreaking method of birth control that intricate.

Many people have contributed to his mind for the development of the contraceptive pill ingested by mouth. Indeed, this issue has become the subject of conversation for a long time; difficulty is that no one knows exactly what chemicals should be put into a pill. Interestingly, the key findings have been discovered since 1937. In that year. A.W. Makepeace, G.L. Weinstein, and M.H. Friedman has been demonstrated that injection of "progesterone" (one of the female sex hormone) can prevent fertilization on laboratory animals. But-perhaps because injection under the skin unattractive situation for ways of preventing pregnancy, or perhaps because of the "progesterone" as it is a very costly chemical-discovery did not attract much public attention. Not encouraging.

Major new developments pill began around 1950 when a U.S. biologist, Gregory Pincus, began working on this problem. Obviously, it is Margaret Sanger, a longtime advocate of birth control that gives encouragement to Pincus. He will be difficult to choose others that are better than Gregory Pincus, as Pincus experts in the field of "steroid metabolism" in the field of physiology and breeding creatures ruminants and laboratory director Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, laboratory biological experiments.

Clearly, he had a combined Pincus with remarkable technical skill and scientific instincts, able to solve the problems outlined by the deft. Soon he got a maid Dr. Min-Chueh Chang, an investigator at the Worcester Foundation, conducted experiments "progesterone" against laboratory animals, to see if it can reduce fertilization although ingested through the mouth. Chang experiment was successful. This is really a promising beginning, specifically from the point of the fact that several years before a chemist named Russell Marker've found a way to make the "progesterone" synthetic cheaper.

Other contributors are Dr. thoughts. John Rock, a gyneacolog whose instigation Pincus experiment. These experiments showed that the "progesterone" that swallowed can prevent conception in women. However, the investigation Rock also solve two serious difficulties due to the use of "progesterone" as a contraceptive to swallow. First, just hit about 85% fertilization. Second, it requires large doses inadequate to address the matter.

But Pincus, are convinced that he is on the right track, prepared by way of overcoming it. He knew there must be other parts that are chemically similar to the "progesterone" but without the constraints. In December 1953 he was asked various chemical companies to send examples of "steroids" they produsir synthetic, chemically similar to the "progesterone." Pincus tries chemicals are received, and one of them "norethynodrel" fib GD Searle was effective.

This is a profitable exit for Pincus, because when he began his investigations, since 1950, norethynodrel never even existed! It was synthesized in 1952 by Dr. Frank B. Colton, a biochemist who works in the laboratory of Searle, and then patented in his name. But either Colton or the supervisor at GD Searle did not intend to try to create contraceptives swallow, even when they realize that they actually managed to make it. Subsequent experiments were carried out by a group of investigators that have been collected by Pincus suggests that "norethynodrel" it could still be more effective when coupled with a slight mix of chemicals called "mestranol." Drug combination is then thrown into the market by GD Searle and his company called "Enovid."

Towards 1955, Pincus can smell that the time has come to conduct experiments on a large-scale pill. The experiment began in April 1956, in the town of San Yuan, Puerto Rico, under the supervision of Dr. Edris Rice-Wray. Within nine months, the experiment shows how great contraceptive pill to swallow. However, the trial continued again until three years before the "Food and Drug Administration" (a kind of official control of food and drugs) approved the marketing of "Enovid" in May 1960.

Of victory is clear that Gregory Pincus developed the contraceptive pill is not alone. Frank Colton is actually creating "norethynodrel"; clear, Colton and various chemists who paved the way for the results of her work is worth its services into account. Similarly, a lot of people working together in groups Pincus, including John Rock, Min-Chueh Chang, and Dr.. Celso-Ramon Garcia all of which can not be ruled out donations thoughts. For that matter, it is, Dr. Edris Rice-Wray, Margaret Sanger, and many more that I could not call, they each hold a role in the overall work.

However, there seems to be little doubt that Gregory Pincus is an important character and the main driving force of the entire project. He is a scientist who does not it is determined to devote all his time and effort in the fight oral contraceptives investigation: he was the one who had the scientific and organization that enable successful project: she examines the basic ideas, seek funding for the cost of the investigation, and invite talented people working together on projects. He has a view and push the project to completion certainty and neat, and he received a major award from the work of this magnitude.

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