Biography of Irving Langmuir

Irving Langmuir was born in Brooklyn, New York, on January 31, 1881, as the third of four sons of Charles Langmuir and Sadie, nee Comings. obtained his early education at various schools and institutions in the United States, and in Paris (1892-1895). He graduated as a metallurgical engineer from the School of Mines at Columbia University in 1903. Physical Chemistry Graduate work under Nernst in Göttingen that he holds an MA and Ph.D. 1906 Back to America, Dr. Langmuir became Instructor in Chemistry at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey, where he taught until July 1909.
Biography of Irving Langmuir
He then entered into the Research Laboratory of the General Electric Company in Schenectady where he eventually became director. His first job is to solve problems encountered in connection with the new tungsten filament bulb. Langmuir concentrate on the basic principle in which the lights worked, studied chemical reactions catalyzed by a hot tungsten filament. He proposed to fill the bulb with nitrogen gas (and then argon gas) and twist it into a form spiral filaments to prevent evaporation of tungsten. His interest in the principle that involve the theory of chemical bonding in electron problem, and he outlines the ideas first put forward by Lewis Gilbert.
Biography of Irving Langmuir
Langmuir proposed that an octet can be filled with a pair-bond between two atoms "covalent". Studies in surface chemistry studies chemical force on the contact surface (antarpermukaan) between different substances, where so many technological and biological reactions occur-won him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1932. Langmuir adsorption developed a new concept, the individual molecules hit the surface in contact with it before it evaporates, then form a monolayer-in contrast to previous theories that resembles adsorption on earth withdrawal from the gases in the atmosphere, where the tug was reduced in line with the gases menjauhnya of the earth. He developed many experimental techniques, including the widespread use of vacuum tubes to study the solid-liquid antarpermukaan and oil film to study liquid-liquid antarpermukaan.

Practicum other theoretical implications on electrical discharge in a gas-helped lay the founding of physics, "plasma", which has application in the present experiments on controlled nuclear combined. It maintains a long interest in meteorology, including development work de-ice planes during World War II. Here Langmuir overemphasize theory research, leading to his demeanor earlier research in "membenihi" clouds with particles of solid carbon dioxide to create rain.
Biography of Irving Langmuir
Study Langmuir embraced chemistry, physics, and engineering, and is largely the result of a study of the phenomenon of vacuum. In searching for the mechanism of atoms and molecules adsorbed films he investigates the nature and properties of electrical discharges in high vacuum and certain gases at low pressure. His work on the gas filaments directly led to the discovery and invention gasfilled incandescent hydrogen atom. He then used both in the development of the atomic hydrogen welding process. He was the first to see a movie that is very stable monatomic adsorbed on platinum and tungsten filaments, and was able, after a trial with a film of oil on the water, to formulate a general theory of adsorbed films. He also studied the catalytic properties of the film.

Langmuir's work on space charge effects and related phenomena caused many important technical developments that have a big impact on the technology later. In chemistry, his interest in the mechanism of the reaction led him to study the structure and valence, and he contributed to the development of the Lewis theory of shared electrons.

Among the awards made to him were: Nichols Medal, (1915 and 1920); Hughes Medal (1918); Rumford Medal (1921); Cannizzaro Prize (1925); Perkin Medal (1928), School of Mines Medal (Columbia University, 1929); Chardler Medal (1929); Willard Gibbs Medal (1930); Popular Science Monthly Award (1932), Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1932); Medal and Holly Franklin Medal (1934), John Scott Award (I937), "Modern Pioneer Industry" (1940); Faraday Medal (1944); Mascart Medal (1950). In addition, he was a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London, Fellow of the American Physical Society, Honorary Member British Institute of Metals, and Chemical Society (London). He has served as President of the American Chemical Society and as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Honorary degrees were awarded to Langmuir by colleges and universities as follows: Northwestern, Union, Edinburgh (Scotland), Columbia, Kenyon, Princeton, Lehigh, Harvard, Oxford, Johns Hopkins, Rutgers, Queens (Canada), and Stevens Institute of Technology .

Dr. Langmuir hobby is mountain, skiing, flying, and, especially, to understand the mechanism of natural phenomena are simple and familiar. He married Marion Mersereau in 1912. They had a son, Kenneth, and a daughter, Barbara. After suffering from the disease, he died on August 16, 1957.

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