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Biography of Pierre Simon Laplace~Leaders Mathematical Physics


Laplace's childhood is not clearly known. Laplace's father is a family of farmers who lived in Beaumont-en-Auge, Calvados district, France, and his mother was Marie-Anne Sochon. Both parents came Tourgeville fertile farmland. Laplace's childhood is known only through penuturannya that tend greatly exaggerated. He was embarrassed by "caste" of his parents and will do anything to cover its origins as a farmer. Laplace intelligence known by wealthy neighbors stand to see the talent this country boy.

It is said that success is a cinch prime Laplace argued in a theological debate. If this fact is true, it is interesting that until adulthood Laplace was an atheist. Small Laplace studied mathematics at the military academy in Beaumont as a smart student so appointed as an assistant lecturer. Laplace taught math there for the first time, before forwarding the school in Caen. There is a version that mentions that interest people not because of his mathematical abilities but because of extraordinary memory so as to attract the attention of those who influence and later brought him to Paris. Age 18 years, Laplace remove the "mud" field Beaumont at his feet and seek their fortune with road wander. Laplace rate him too highly. With adjustments to the confidence, Laplace teens entered the city of Paris to conquer the world of mathematics.


Ask Katebelece d'Alembert
Biography of Pierre Simon Laplace - Leaders Mathematical Physics
Age 16 years, Laplace entered Caen University. Over the past two years at the University of Caen, laplace showed talent in mathematics and liked the course. Getting a compliment from two professors of mathematics at the University of Caen, C. Gadbled and P. Le Canu actually did not know much but just knowing that Laplace Laplace has the potential to become a great mathematician.

At that d'Alembert was the leading mathematician in Paris. Once arrived in Paris, with a letter of introduction - references of C. Gadbled and P. Le Canu, Laplace request a letter of recommendation to d'Alembert. The first letter was not returned. Apparently d'Alembert did not like the "style" of young people who brought the letter references a famous person. Laplace kostnya returned to the place and re-write a second letter to d'Alembert, but this time much more attached to the basic principles of mechanics. Using guile, apparently. This time d'Alembert replied with a letter,
"You know that I do not care about your reference letters, because you do not need it. You introduce yourself better. It was enough. My support always accompany you. "
A few days later, having thanked the d'Alembert, Laplace was appointed professor of mathematics at the Military School of Paris (Ecole Militaire). Salary earned enough to support life in Paris. Laplace relationship with d'Alembert was heated when Lagrange proposed by d'Alembert to replace Euler at the Berlin Academy.

Developing ideas of others
Laplace no new ideas. All the ideas are developing or just replace the "packaging" of ideas of others. When Lagrange menbicarakan three-body problem (three-body), Laplace took similar steps, but in a wider scale. Lagrange ideas about potential theory developed by Laplace Laplace making a name known until now. Laplace ranging from Newton's law and combined with the impact of instability - drag and stall / appeal - from the planets to the sun. Similarly, Legendre's work on how to do the analysis addressed by Laplace. Great work Mecanique celeste still refer to the works of others coupled with a "touch" of him. Departing from this work, and Laplace developed what came to be called the mathematical model for the universe. The role of Newton, as mentioned earlier, no doubt is a role model and reference model Laplace. Contribution to the dynamics of the solar system (solar system) is a topic of forgotten or unnoticed by others. Departing from the topic of the solar system problem arises: if the solar system is stable or unstable? It is assumed that Newton's laws of gravity apply common (universal) and only control the motion of the planets.

Laplace important step to answer the above question occurred when she was 24 years old (1773), where he was able to prove that the distance between the planets to the Sun varies depending on the period. This achievement makes the Laplace awarded, soaring career and was named a member of the Academy of Science. The work is made Laplace finally decided that she will devote and mobilize all its ability to pursue this field of mathematical astronomy.

The difference between the Lagrange Laplace
It was in the French name of Laplace and Lagrange are well known but have many differences in the development of mathematics: mathematical physicist Laplace including group, while Lagrange is pure mathematicians. The fundamental difference between Lagrange and Laplace also reflected in the results of their work, whether learning about numbers or attractiveness months. Lagrange answer all questions using math - considered sacred, with elegance and generally (generality). Instead, Laplace regard mathematics as a tool, which need to be modified or adapted to the specific problems that arise. A mathematician is great, the other is a great philosopher who wants to understand nature by using high math.

A good friend of both, Fourier, gave expression: "Lagrange is not a philosopher but rather as a mathematician. His whole life used to prove, according to his will, not for the benefit of mankind. "Lagrange profound impact on modern mathematics through" the depth and accuracy of his scientific work ", which is not terkadung the great work (masterpiece) Laplace. Regardless of the difference was in fact the name is more popular than the Lagrange Laplace. Perhaps because Laplace struggling with large projects that demonstrate that the solar system is the engine that never silent with enormous shape.

Politicians "fleas"
In 1785, at the age of 36, Laplace was promoted to member of the Academy of Science and was awarded as the Man a career in science (career of a man of science). In this year also Laplace capable of being a public figure. This achievement made him nominated as the sole candidate at the Military School. Here the Laplace became acquainted with a young man who scuttle plans in mathematics to get into the dirty mud [game] politics. The young man named Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821).

When the revolution, Laplace sitting on horseback and watched everything run smoothly. No one with arrogance and ambition able to get away from danger. De Pastoret suspect that Lagrange and Laplace escaped guilitin because both skills are needed to calculate the trajectory perluru (cannon) and helps the production of saltpeter (Salpeter) as the base material of gunpowder.

Condorcet experienced different fate. Make a fatal mistake because ordinary life as aristocrat. At one point he ordered omelets. Never know how many eggs, he ordered omelets with 12 eggs. The chef suspiciously and asked, "What is your job? '. "Carpenter." "Open the palms of your hands!." "You are not a carpenter." Condorcet was arrested and jailed. Poisoning die in prison. There are allegations Condorcet told to drink poison or suicide.

After the revolution, Laplace plunge into politics. Perhaps to solve Newton's achievement. Laplace was criticized for not being able to control the offices of community service under the successor regime without changing the political direction. Laplace's expertise is to convince political opponents that he is a loyal supporter. The end result, Laplace always get position every time change of government. Can change overnight political turnaround of republican fanatics nor the most ardent royalist.

Electromagnetic
Potential theory - an adaptation of the Lagrange - developed by Laplace follow his dreams to be significant for the modern era. Without the role of mathematics, the theory is dead prematurely and we all never knew what it was electromagnetic. In spite of this theory has emerged a branch of mathematics that diigunakan to solve problems, it is more significant than the current physics theory of gravitation Newton introduced. The concept of mathematical inspiration adalan potential bully - allows us to solve the problems of physics that had seemed untouched.

Potential is a function of u is described in conjunction with the movement of the liquid and is made according to the rules of the Laplace equation of Newton. The function u is the "velocity potential"; when using Newtonian gravity formula then u is the "gravitational potential." Introduction to the theory of the concept of potential fluid motion, gravity, electromagnetic, and others are the most important achievements in mathematical physics. The impact of the replacement diferential equations in two or three unknowns by using the equation with one unknown.

The work of Laplace peak
Mecanique celeste, is astronomical works with all its problems were published in the period of 12 years. Created two volumes in 1799, containing the movement of the planets, the forms (when played), and the waves of the ocean; subsequent two volumes appeared in 1802 and in 1805 and contains a full investigation is completed with the publication of five volumes between the years 1823 to 1825.

Mathematical expression used Laplace far from valid. Laplace was more interested in the end result than how to get it. To "hide" mathematical flaw is expressed in the comment "It is easy to see." Another work is "the exposition of the system of the Universe," published in 1796. Called work that does not touch the top of Laplace mathematics. This paper is not long because only 153 pages quarto. Do not forget the offensive Laplace probability theory in 1820. All of the work was able to establish the same Laplace as a writer as great mathematician. Although the explanation of Laplace probability theory is not yet mature, but at the time it was already opened new horizons of thought and later became the basis for the development of this theory by future generations.

End of story
How Laplace position when Napoleon fell? Predictably, the diplomatic skills, he swerved to be faithful followers of Louis VIII and assume the title of Marquis de Laplace. Laplace devotion, and then, in 1816, awarded by the appointment of Laplace became president of the committee for revamping Ecole Politehnique. There is a story about when he showed the work of Laplace Mecanique celeste to Napoleon, to face the question, "Do you write in such a thick book on the system of the universe but not the slightest mention who the creator." Jump with a straightforward answer, "Sir, I do not need a hypothesis."
Laplace enjoy her parents in a small town, Arcueil, near Paris. After a few days of illness, Laplace dies

Contribution
Mathematical physics can be termed as the first gait Laplace in using mathematics to implementation. Laplace transform - Laplace perpetuate the name - is used to solve the equations diferential and determines response waveform (oscillators) harmonics to the input signal (input). In the history of Laplace apparently a scientist requires a bias in case of change.

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