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Biography of Francisco Pizarro


Francisco Pizarro (± 1475-1541) was born in 1475 in the city of Trujillo, Spain. Let illiterate, he was the one who conquered the Inca empire in Peru. As with a lot of Hernando Cortes similarity to it, Pizarro landed in the New World seeking fame and fortune fighting. From the year 1502 until 1509 Pizarro lived in Hispaniola, the Caribbean island, in the area of ​​what is now the Dominican Republic and Haiti. In 1513 he became a member of the expedition under the command of Vasco Nunez de Balboa, who discovered the Atlantic Ocean.

In 1519 he settled in Panama. From the year 1522, when Pizarro stepped on the age of forty-seven years old, he knew that the Inca empire from a Spanish explorer Pascual de Andagoya ever visited. Pizarro, driven by the inspiration of the conquest of Mexico by Hernando Cortes, determined to conquer the Inca Empire.

First attempt failed in 1524-1525 and two ships were forced to U-turn before touching Peru. Experiment two years 1526-1528 he managed to gain a foothold on the coast of Peru and brought home gold, llamas, and the Indians.

Francisco Pizarro Biography

In 1528 he returned to Spain. There, the following year, King Charles V gave him the power to conquer Peru for the interests of Spain and equipped with the necessary funding and everything for the expedition. Pizarro returned to Panama and preparing for the expedition. The expedition sailed from Panama in 1531. At that time, Pizarro had entered the age of fifty-five years. Strengths expedition was organized in less than 200 people, while the Inca empire conquered populous will not be less than six million people!

Pizarro landed in Peru next year. In September of 1532, just by carrying 177 people and 62 horses, he stormed into the mainland. With such a small force Pizarro climb the towering Andes mountains to the city of Cajamarca purpose, position-Inca ruler Atahualpa - which has the power of 14,000 soldiers. Soldiers "little man" Pizarro arrived at Cajamarca November 15 th in 1532. The following year, at the request of Pizarro, Atahualpa left a large number of troops and escorted by only about 5,000 unarmed loyal followers. come to negotiate with Pizarro.

Pizarro's behavior puzzling though should be able to capture Atahualpa gelagatnya. Starting from the Spaniards were to set foot on the beach, they straightforwardly already shown his evil intent and rudeness. Therefore hardly any sense because the Atahualpa allow troops Cajamarca Pizarro approached without a hitch. If only the Indians confront Pizarro on the narrow road that slopes Pizarro cavalry certainly have no power, they must be easily cut down the Spaniards. Attitude Atahualpa after Pizarro arrived at Cajamarca is also very surprising. Troops approached obviously malignant while he himself unarmed, truly an act of reckless and stupid. This mystery is rampant considering tactics Inca customs is doing a surprise attack.

Pizarro known not to waste this golden opportunity. He commanded troops following Atahualpa confront unarmed guard altogether. Battle - or rather butchery - lasted only about half an hour. No one Spanish soldier was killed. Pizarro who injured himself just a little scratched due to him to protect Atahualpa captured alive.

Pizarro went perfect strategy. Incas had a system of centralized structure, all of the power radiated from the Inca or emperor regarded as a demigod. With the capture of the Inca as a captive, the Indians helpless resist the invasion of Spain. Presumably in the hope of re-gaining independence, Pizarro Atahualpa paying large amounts of gold and silver prices may be more than $ 28 million. However, just a few months later he was sentenced to death by Pizarro. In November 1533, a year after captured Atahualpa, Pizarro troops entered Cuzco, the Inca capital, without any fighting. There, Pizarro appointed a puppet king. In 1535 he discovered that the city of Lima the capital of Peru.

Francisco Pizarro (± 1475-1541)
In 1536, the Inca king puppet fled and led a rebellion against the Spanish siege in Lima and Cuzco. After that Spain tried hard to restore its control over the whole country in the next year, but in 1572 a new rebellion could really tertumpas. After it died Pizarro.

The decline Pizarro star began to appear when the Spaniards fistfight each other. One of his close friend Pizarro, Diego de Almargo, revolt in 1537 demanding fair Pizarro did not share the spoils. Almargo arrested and sentenced to death. However, death is not solving the problem. About these issues, so the spread continues in 1541 in a support group Almargo stormed Pizarro's palace in Lima and kill leaders whose age was sixty-five years, only eight years since he occupied Cuzco with a resounding victory.

Francisco Pizarro was a brave, believe in yourself, and stiff. Measured from the mental, he's a Muslim, reportedly dying Pizarro when painting a picture of the cross with his blood and the last words out of his mouth was "Jesus". Instead, he was not playing greedy, ruthless, ambitious, and cunning; perhaps the most brutal Spanish conquerors.

However, do not turn a blind eye roughness Pizarro for his success in the military field. When the 1967 Israeli Arab earn a dramatic victory over the much larger than Israel itself and its arms were more complete, many people stunned. The win was really impressive. However, history abounds with military victory by a small army of troops face bigger iauh. Napoleon and Alexander the Great repeatedly won battles against multiple enemy bigger. The Mongols under Genghis Khan, conqueror able to conquer China, a country with a population of thirty times greater than the Mongols.

But Pizarro conquered an empire of more than six million in just 180 soldiers with the troops really an astonishing events in history. What is done is way better than the 800 soldiers of Cortes conquered the country with a population of around five million. In fact, maybe Genghis Khan or Alexander the Great outperform Pizarro? I doubt it, because they do not have kenekadan conquest crazy like that.

But, of course, one might ask: is not Spain have guns that helped edge tactics? Absolutely not. Arquebuses, firearms primitive period which has only short-range firepower and require a lot of time filling mesiunya. Although the noise was terrifying, actually kind of weapon that is less potent than the arrows that good. At a time when Pizarro broke in Cajamarca, only three soldiers were handheld firearms arquebuses and no more than twenty have the following bows arrows. Generally, the Indians killed by conventional weapons such as swords and spears. Besides just having a little horse and firearms, obviously the Spaniards involved in the conflict militarily in a position that is not very profitable. Is leadership and steely determination rather than a weapon that a major factor in the victory of Spain. Of course, good fortune does favor of Pizarro but as the saying goes "Luck always be on the side of the brave."

Francisco Pizarro was criticized by some writers is like as a butcher whose violent. If after all that, she included a bit of butcher-butchers who have influence in history. Kingdoms ouster controlled area of ​​Peru and Ecuador now, as well as the northern half of Chile and part of Bolivia. The population is slightly more than the rest of the population throughout South America combined. As a result of Pizarro's conquest of religion and Spanish culture is embedded in the whole area. Furthermore, after the fall of the Inca empire, none of the other parts of South America that survived the conquest of Europe. Millions of Indians still lived in South America, but in most of the continent the Indians was never again able to hold political role. European language, religion, culture, remains dominant.

Cortes and Pizarro, each one just led a small army, managed to quickly overthrow the Aztec and Inca empire. These events make a lot of people reckon that the conquest of Mexico and Peru by the Europeans can not be avoided anymore. In fact, the Aztec empire had no chance to defend its independence. Location of position (near the Gulf of Mexico and not apart from Cuba) open to the attacks of the Europeans. Even if the Aztecs had managed to hit the small army of Cortes, the Spanish army in greater numbers will surely come soon follow.

Incas, on the other hand, have a more favorable defensive position. The only boundary is the Pacific Ocean is more difficult to enter than the Atlantic. Inca had a large number of soldiers, many populous and well-organized. Moreover Peru uneven terrain and mountains, and in many parts of the world, European colonial powers usually have difficulty conquering the mountains. Even at the end of the 19th century when European weapons far more advanced than they had in the 16th century, Italy conquered Ethiopia experiment did not succeed.

Something similar happened to British also faced an almost endless difficulties facing tribes in the mountainous northwest frontier of India. And people are never able to colonize Europe mountainous country like Nepal, Afghanistan and Iran. If Pizarro's conquest failed, and if the Incas had little knowledge of weapons and tactics of the Europeans, they would be able to resist the European powers that came later. While in a state like that, Spain took thirty-six years down the rebellion of the Indians in the year 1536, although the Indians only have few guns and was never able to muster more than small forces before Pizarro's conquest. Spain will be able to conquer the Inca Empire even without Pizarro though, but estimated it seems far from certain.

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