Identity Sugar

Sugar is a simple carbohydrate that is the source of energy and commodities trading. Sugar is the most widely traded in the form of crystalline solid sucrose. Sugar is used to change the taste of a sweet and state of the food or beverage. Simple sugars, such as glucose (produced from sucrose by enzymes or acid hydrolysis), storing energy that will be used by the cell.

a. Sugar as a commodity

Sugars as sucrose obtained from sugar cane juice, beet sugar, or sugar. Nevertheless, there are minor sources of sugar, including coconuts. Sources of other sweeteners, such as dahlia tubers, anggir, or corn, also produces a kind of sugar / sweetener but not composed of sucrose. The process to produce sugars include phase extraction (extortion) followed by purification by distillation (distillation).

State-biggest sugar producing countries are countries with warm climates, such as Australia, Brazil and Thailand. Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) has become the world's major sugar producers in the 1930's, but then match the new sugar industry more efficient. In the year 2001/2002 sugar produced in developing countries more than doubled compared to the sugar produced many developed countries. Is the largest sugar producer in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the countries of East Asia.

As with beets, beet sugar produced in places with milder climates, Northwest and Eastern Europe, northern Japan, and some areas in the United States, the growing season ended pemanenannya bit in September. Harvesting and processing continues until March in some cases. The duration of harvesting and processing of the affected plant availability, and weather. Bits that have been harvested can be stored for further processing, freezing However the bits that can no longer be processed.

Largest sugar importer is European Union. EU agricultural regulations set a maximum quota of each member of the production according to demand, supply, and price. Some of the sugar is sugar "quota" of industry levies, the remainder is sugar "quota c" are sold at market prices without subsidy. These subsidies and high import taxes make the country difficult to export to other countries of the EU, or compete with it in the world market. United States sets high sugar prices to support the author, it has side effects, but many consumers are switching to corn syrup (beverage makers) or moved out of the country (candy makers) sugar market was also attacked by the cheap prices of glucose syrups. Syrup is produced from corn (maize), By combining it with artificial sweeteners beverage maker can produce goods with a very low price.

b. A brief history of sugar in Indonesia

Source of sugar in Indonesia since the past is the fluid of interest (sap) or palm oil, and sugar cane liquor. Sugarcane is a native plant of the archipelago, especially in the east.

When the Dutch began colonizing Java open gardens sugarcane monoculture was opened by the landlords in the 17th century, first around Batavia, and then expanding to the east.

Peak sugarcane glories achieved in the early years of the 1930s, with 179 processing plants and production of three million tons of sugar per year. Decline in sugar prices due to the economic crisis eroded the industry and at the end of the decade only the remaining 35 plants with a production of 500 thousand tons of sugar per year. The situation somewhat recovered before the Pacific War, with 93 factories and prduksi 1.5 million tons. After World War II, the remaining 30 active plants. In the 1950s witnessed renewed activity that Indonesia became a net exporter. In 1957 all sugar factories were nationalized and the government is regulating this industry. Since 1967 until now Indonesia back into sugar importer.

Research stalled sugar, sugar mills in Java technology lag, high levels of consumption (including for the soft drink industry), and a lack of investor for sugarcane land clearing outside Java cause difficulty self sufficiency

In 2002 declared target of self-sufficiency Sugar 2007 [2]. To support the Indonesian Sugar Council was formed in 2003 (based on Indonesian Presidential Decree no. 63/2003 on the Indonesian Sugar Council). This target was subsequently postponed continuously

c. Various kinds of sugar

Brown sugar or sugar Java type of sugar made from the sap, the fluid is removed from the family tree flowers palm, coconut, palm, and siwalan. Brown sugar is marketed in the form of cylindrical bars mold, mold half ball and bulk powder called sugar ants

d. Cane sugar

Sugar cane sugar mostly marketed in the form of bulk crystals. First of all raw materials crushed and squeezed, the juice is collected and filtered, the liquid that is formed is then added additional material (usually using calcium oxide) to remove ketidakkemurnian, the mixture is then bleached with sulfur dioxide. The mixture is formed and then boiled, sediment and floating trash can then be separated. After quite pure, liquid cooled and crystallized (usually while stirring) to produce sugars that can be poured into molds. A centrifugal machine can also be used in the crystallization process.

Sugar is sugar cane that is not through the stages of crystallization. Sugar boxes / blocks are soft-pressed sugar crystals in the form of dice. Raw sugar (raw sugar) is a sugar crystal made without going through the process of bleaching with sulfur. The color is brownish because it still contains molasses.

e. Sugar beet

After being washed, then chopped beet and sugar then extracted with hot water in a diffuse. Purification and then handled by adding a solution of calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. After filtering the mixture is formed and then boiled until the water content is left only 30% live alone. Sugar is then extracted by controlled crystallization. First of all sugar crystals are separated by centrifuges and the remaining liquid is used for additional subsequent crystallization process. The remaining pulp (which is no longer able to take sugar from him) used for animal feed and thus formed white sugar which is then filtered into a certain level of quality for sale.

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