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Understanding Salt (chemistry)


In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds consisting of positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions), thus forming a neutral compound (non-charged). Salts formed from the reaction of acids and bases. Cation and anion components may include inorganic compounds such as chloride (Cl-), and can also be organic compounds such as acetate (CH3COO-) and monatomic ions such as fluoride (F-), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42-). Sodium chloride (NaCl), the main ingredient of salt is a salt.

There are many kinds of salt. Salts are hydrolyzed to form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water the salt called bases. Salts are hydrolyzed to form hydronium ions in water called acid salts. Neutral salt is salt is not salt or acid salt base. Zwitterion solution has an anionic and cationic molecules in the middle at the same time, but not referred to as salt. Examples are amino acids, metabolites, peptides, and proteins.

Salt solution in water (for example sodium chloride in water) is an electrolyte solution, ie a solution that can conduct electricity. The liquid in the living body contains salt solution, such as cytoplasm and blood. However, because the fluid in the body also contains many other ions, it will not form the salt after the water evaporated.

a. The characteristics of

Color

Potassium dichromate, an orange salt used as a pigment

• Manganese dioxide, salt, black
• Salt can be brightly colored and transparent (eg sodium chloride), opaque, and sometimes metallic and lustrous (iron disulfide).
• Salt can be colored all sorts, such as the following:
• yellow (sodium chromate),
• orange (potassium dichromate),
• Red (potassium ferisianida),
• mauve (cobalt chloride hexahydrate),
• blue (copper sulfate pentahydrate, ferric hexacyanoferrate),
• purple (potassium permanganate),
• green (nickel chloride hexahydrate),
• White (sodium chloride / table salt),
• colorless (magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) and
• black (manganese dioxide).

Taste

In all the salt, there are 5 different flavors, namely: salty (sodium chloride), sweet (lead (II) acetate, toxic if swallowed up), sour (potassium bitartrate), bitter (magnesium sulfate), and savory (monosodium glutamate).

Odor

Salts derived from a strong acid and a strong base ("strong salts") are usually stable and odorless, whereas salts formed from weak acids and weak bases ("weak salts") is caused by the smell because the conjugate acid (eg acetic acid (acetic acid ) on (vinegar) and cyanides like hydrogen cyanide) or because its conjugate base (eg, ammonium salts like ammonia). Partial decomposition can be accelerated by the addition of water, since hydrolysis is the other half of the reversible reaction forming weak salt.

Ion

The names begin with the name of ionic salt cations (eg, sodium or ammonium) followed by the name of the anion ion (eg, chloride or acetate).

Cation ion included are:

• Iron (II) oxide (FeO)
• Iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3)
• Ammonium NH4 +
• Calcium Ca2 +
• Iron Fe2 + and Fe3 +
• Magnesium Mg2 +
• Potassium K +
• pyridinium C5H5NH +
• Quaternary ammonium NR4 +
• Sodium Na +

Ion which included anion include:

• Acetate CH3COO-(acetic acid)
• Carbonate CO32-(carbonic acid)
• Chloride Cl-(hydrochloric acid)
• Citrate HOC (COO-) (CH2COO-) 2 (citric acid)
• Cyanide C ≡ N-(hydrogen cyanide)
• Hydroxide OH-(water)
• Nitrate NO3-(nitric acid)
• Nitrite NO2-(nitric acid)
• Oxide O2-(water)
• Phosphate PO43-(phosphoric acid)
• Sulfate SO42-(sulfuric acid)
• [edit]
• Establishment of salt

Lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4)

Chemical reactions to produce salts, among others:

• The reaction between acids and bases, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) + ammonia (NH3) → ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).
• The reaction between metals and dilute strong acid, such as Mg + 2 HCl → MgCl2 + H2. Description: precious metals generally do not react this way.
• The reaction between metals and non-metals, for example, Ca + Cl2 → CaCl2
• The reaction between alkali and acid oxides, eg, 2 NaOH + Cl2O → 2 NaClO + H2O
• The reaction between the acid with alkali oxides, for example, 2 HNO3 + Na2O + H2O → 2 NaNO3
• Salt can also be formed when two different salts are mixed. Ions they will form a new mix,

for example:
Pb (NO3) 2 (aq) Na2SO4 + (aq) → PbSO4 (s) + 2 NaNO3 (aq)

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