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Alkaloids


Alkaloids are a class of compounds which mostly heterocyclic nitrogenous bases and contained in plants (but this does not exclude the compounds derived from animals). Amino acids, peptides, proteins, nukleotid, nucleic acids, amino sugars, and antibiotics are usually not classified as alkaloids. And the same principle, which is a neutral compound biogenetics related alkaloids including this digolongan.

Category

Alkaloids are usually classified according to the origin of molecular similarity (precursors), based on the metabolic pathway (metabolic pathway) that is used to form a molecule. If the biosynthesis of an unknown alkaloids, alkaloid compounds are classified according to their names, including the name of the compound that does not contain nitrogen (due to their molecular structure present in the final product. Example: opium alkaloid sometimes called "phenanthrenes"), or under the name of a plant or animal in which the compound was isolated. If after alkaloid was studied, an alkaloid modified classification according to the assessment, it usually takes the name-the-amine important biological striking in the process of synthesis.

• Pyridine Group: piperine, coniine, trigonelline, arecoline, arecaidine, guvacine, cytisine, lobeline, nikotina, anabasine, sparteine, pelletierine.
• Group pyrrolidine: hygrine, cuscohygrine, nikotina
• Group tropane: atropine, cocaine, ecgonine, scopolamine, catuabine
• Group Kuinolina: kuinina, kuinidina, dihidrokuinina, dihidrokuinidina, strychnine, Brucine, veratrine, cevadine
• Group Isokuinolina: alkaloids-opium alkaloids (papaverine, narcotine, narceine), Sanguinarine, hydrastine, berberine, emetine, berbamine, oxyacanthine
• phenanthrene alkaloids: alkaloids-opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine)
• Group phenethylamine: mescaline, ephedrine, dopamine
• Group Indola:
• tryptamines: serotonin, DMT, 5-Meo-DMT, bufotenine, psilocybin
• Ergolines (these alkaloids of ergot): ergine, ergotamine, lysergic acid
• Beta-carboline: harmine, harmaline, tetrahydroharmine
• Yohimbans: reserpine, yohimbine
• Vinca alkaloids: vinblastine, vincristine
• Alkaloids Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine
• Tabernanthe iboga alkaloids: ibogaine, voacangine, coronaridine
• Strychnos nux-vomica alkaloids: strychnine, Brucine
• Purine Group:
• xanthine: Caffeine, Theobromine, theophylline
• Group terpenoids:
• Aconitum alkaloids: aconitine
• Steroid Alkaloids (which invertebrate steroid nitrogenous structure):
• Solanum (eg potato and tomato alkaloids) (solanidine, solanine, chaconine)
• Veratrum Alkaloids (veratramine, cyclopamine, cycloposine, jervine, muldamine) [2]
• Alkaloids Salamander volcano (samandarin)
• Other: conessine
• quaternary ammonium compounds s: muscarine, choline, neurine
• The others: capsaicin, cynarin, phytolaccine, phytolaccotoxin


Sources and History

Alkaloids produced by many organisms, ranging from bacteria, fungi (mushrooms), plants, and animals. Extraction is roughly normally can easily be done via acid-base extraction techniques. Or bitter taste perceived bitter tongue can be caused by alkaloids.

The term "alkaloid" (meaning "similar to alkali", because they are alkaline) was first used by Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Meissner (1819), a pharmacist from Halle (Germany) to refer to a variety of compounds derived from the alkaline extraction plant (at the time it has been known, for example, morfina, striknina and solanina). Until now about 10,000 known alkaloid compounds belonging to very diverse structure, so until now no clear boundaries for her.

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