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Biochemistry


• Understanding

Biochemistry is the chemistry of living things. Biochemist studying the molecules and chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes that take place in all organisms. See this article for a diagram of molecular biology and the description of the relationship between biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics.

Biochemistry is the study of the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. Currently biochemical focused more specifically on enzyme-mediated chemical reactions and properties of proteins. Currently, the biochemistry of cell metabolism has been widely studied. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code (DNA, RNA), synthesis of proteins, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction.

• The development of biochemical

Revival begins with the discovery of the first biochemical molecule enzyme, diastase, in 1833 by Anselme Payen. In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a book on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created independently. This discovery contradicts the common understanding at the time it was believed that organic compounds could only be made by the organism. The term was first suggested biochemistry in 1903 by Karl Neuber, a German chemist. Since then, biochemistry is growing, especially since the mid-20th century, with the discovery of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, electrophoresis, NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR), radioisotope labeling, electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations . These techniques enable discovery and a deeper analysis of various molecules and cell metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. The development of the new science of bioinformatics as well as a lot of help in forecasting and modeling of giant molecular structure.

Currently, biochemical findings are used in various fields, ranging from genetics to molecular biology and from agriculture to medicine. Application of biochemical perhaps the first time in the making bread using yeast, about 5000 years ago.

Another important discovery in the field of biochemistry is the discovery of genes and their role in information transfer in cells. Biochemistry section is sometimes also referred to as molecular biology. In the 1950's, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins discovered the structure of DNA and how trying to do with the transfer of genetic information. In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum won the Nobel Prize for their research on the fungus result showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of a crime through DNA evidence. More recently, Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello won the Nobel Prize in 2006 for inventing the function of RNA interference (RNAi).

• Biomolecules

There are four main classes of molecules in biochemistry are: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Many biological molecules are "polymer": in this case, the monomer is a relatively small mikromolekul joined together to form macromolecules, collectively referred to as "polymer". While many monomers combine to synthesize a biological polymer, through a process / stage called dehydration synthesis.

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