Vitamins have a very long history, though relatively new, is not he recognized. In ancient times, when people have left the nomadic life of hunter-gatherers and formed the first city and the beginning of settled agriculture developed and sustained, it was soon realized and recorded by scribes of ancient Sumeria (now Iraq) that food can affect health in a way more subtle than just make a living.
This may have been known by the traditional priests of the tribe earlier, but in the Sumerian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia and Babylon, has been studied in more detail, and the results recorded in clay shelves. Unfortunately, most of them now destroyed over centuries or strangers in the desert. Although it is known that in ancient Egypt, some foods have been recommended to improve night vision.
Thus, nutritional science was born, and unfortunately did not fix these ideas for a considerable time. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and later the Arabs have made advances in medicine, but not in the prevention of health problems and disease occurs first. Instead they focused on the healing process after the symptoms have been observed.
Early herbalists with their preventative herb, often dismissed (sometimes loudly so) as a witch or warlock, and their work is treated with extreme suspicion. Later, in Europe it's even worse, the Church does not like any discussion of science, most of which have been classified as dangerous blasphemy. And as millions continue to suffer appalling that could have been avoided with the light of knowledge.
Changes likely to be better - Scurvy prevented
This change began to come around the eighteenth century the British Empire. Because global spread, ships at sea is very important, and it surprised psychiatric in government that cruel scurvy, which now has a story three hundred odd years, and the number of the companies' favor: dizziness, apathy (lack of energy), loss teeth, gums swollen and bleeding heavily random spontaneous difficult or impossible to stop, killing more British sailors were lost due to enemy. Scabies is a serious problem for ships of all nations, of course, but England more determined to do something about its horrors.
A few years prior to 1750, a doctor and a Scottish naval surgeon James Lind called, which is one of those angry and disappointed with what he saw on the ship was discovered that unknown properties located in Orange (what we now know that vitamin C) can actually prevent scurvy to complete. He published his findings in 1753 in a "treatise on scurvy, but very groundbreaking ignored by most Navy and the findings remain valid up until the year 1800. During this interval of years, it is estimated by some authorities that the nearly 100,000 British sailor dies as scabies.
When the Lords of the Admiralty finally woke up, the disease was soon removed, with other countries following the navy. A note here is the creation of the nickname "limey" is applied to the UK, he just chalk collected by British ships to give their teams. Despite the fact that more often than lemon lime that has been used.
War against beriberi
Thus, the nutrients in the diet was triumphantly elected, but it's still a fight on his hands to be accepted as a whole. Year 1880 saw the Dutch scientist Christiaan Eijkman did a lot of pioneering with animals, changing their diets to produce vitamin deficiency conditions and then reversing poor health with re-modify the content rather than the quantity of their food.
Also in 1906, England Frederick Hopkins (later became the title) also believes "growth factors" critical in the food we eat. He said that the "factors" that are essential to life and health, and not otherwise contained in our own makeup or physiology They can not be produced without any chemical additives in food nutrition .. Both men were to win the Nobel Prize of Medicine in 1929, but at the necessary for clinicians to pay special attention had significant results in people.
In the late 1800's and 1900's, trash and disabling tropical disease known as beriberi (whose name comes from the Sinhalese language of Sri Lanka, "Give" which means "weak" and is now known to be caused by a deficiency of vitamin B is endemic in southern Asia . Nobody fully taken into account may be treated through nutrition as little more than a century scabies before until an English physician named William Fletcher began working in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the British colony of Malaya.
In 1905, he performed experiments on occupant asylum nutrition, asking them to be fed with different types of rice (polished or matte). All things in their diet is the same, he saw that shortly after a quarter of polished rice consumers already suffering from the effects of beri-beri, while about two percent of those not fed polished rice showing symptoms of this disease.
Seven years later, a doctor named Casimir Funk, who was born in Poland and now works at the Lister Institute in London, England, read the findings of Dr. Fletcher and develop them further. He reviewed the rough rice balls in every detail, and find a property that is actively working in the prevention of beriberi. He was to name it as "vitamins."
The word is derived from the meaning of "Vitalis" from the Latin "very important" and "amine" which is a group of chemical compounds of ammonia. Mr. Funk was originally hypothesized that all food additives associated with ammonia, but it has proven not to be the case a few years later, and the "e" was dropped to change the "vitamin" in "Vitamin.
The following year (1913) find a scientist Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Osbourne of Yale University, the discovery of growth promoters in butter with improved physical development laboratory mice. This promoter has been coined as "fat-soluble vitamins A. '" A "because it is the first isolated as a vitamin or vitamins. All known by letters starting with the characteristics of each chemical will not be fully known until the thirties.
Vitamin is now here, but many scientists still do not appreciate them or other sources and uses. Most still think (by those who have an opinion) that diseases like scurvy or pellagra (skin disease) is the beginning of a vitamin deficiency, not a sign of lack and long-term approach of death. Other findings can help inform better.
Other growth promoters found in cow's milk and is called vitamin "water soluble B (water soluble vitamins are all good or fat), and this is the first of many vitamin B. A group of vitamins that come in the same foodstuffs have closely related functions in the body, and works well when everyone is present.
Milk against rickets
In 1922, what should be known that vitamin D was discovered by Edward Mellanby and enrichment of milk because it's in the United States, played a leading role in the fight against rickets (which is a bone softening disease in children, especially in the legs).
In the same year he was seen in the University of California by Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop that rats raised on milk seems healthy, but time has shown that no one can reproduce. Their study shows what is lost, fat-soluble vitamin E, which is found by them at first in wheat and green leaves.
What we now know that vitamin C (winner to prevent scurvy), which is also the first vitamin synthesized (artificial) isolated and identified through the efforts of the Hungarian Szent-Gyorgyi Albert independent, were found stored in our adrenal glands and won the Nobel Prize; C. King and WA Waugh, who worked with the lemon to find the exact same chemical and Harriet Chick of the Lister Institute, who also isolated vitamins in fruits and vegetables various others.
Vitamin K and blood clotting properties are found beautiful in 1920 by Dane Henrik Dam, who would win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1943. In this year, the same prize awarded to American Edward Doisy Henrik Dam to take discovery and increased understanding of how the chemistry works.
Here vitamin pills
Thus, the discovery continues and there are now a total of 13 vitamins that are considered essential to the health and well-being, with nine water-soluble and fat-soluble four. There's more, but it is as much vitamin substances without actually vitamins. In other words, they are organic compounds responsible for similar tasks in the body, but can be produced by ourselves.
Then in the thirties was to find a way to produce artificial vitamins, allowing pharmaceutical companies to begin large-scale production of a more pure form, which allows the marketing of "vitamin pill" now we all know and the great benefits it can bring.
But this is not the end of the narrative of history. Knowledge about vitamins and how they work will continue to grow in their forties, fifties and beyond. How and where they can all be stored and used by our body metabolism, both in blood vessels, or organs, muscles or bones, skin and body cells, and they also can prevent diseases and conditions known in history.
As Evan Canadian physicians. V. Shute, who with his colleagues, set out additional doses of vitamin E for their patients who suffer from heart disease, vitamin proven can act as a remedy for other complaints due to their non-attendance.
They also, for a few decades later, to slow down the signs of aging, and proven impact on gene function, and have a multiplier effect when used in combination with additional mineral or what is also important for human health.
It also found that people are different, depending on age, gender or general health or condition can be helped more by a different dose or a combination, and that there is no "one size fits all" reality, but the urgent needs of individual nutrients may differ quite broad and that excessive alcohol or smoking can make a lot of vitamin less effective.
It was also later discovered that the vitamin can cause illness or beneficial effects against their parents when taken to excess mega doses, which can produce toxins because of the inability of the body using a branch of the family of fat-soluble vitamins. Too good to be almost as dangerous as not enough.
And physicians today continue to learn more new facts about vitamins, for use in therapy and may be against the scourge of cancer is better and helps the other drugs in the blood.