Article

Proclamation - Independence Day of Indonesia


Proclamation of Indonesian Independence Friday, August 17, 1945 solar year, or August 17, 2605 by in Japan read by Ir. Sukarno, who was accompanied by Drs. Mohammad Hatta in Pegangsaan Way East 56, Central Jakarta.

On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima by the United States have begun to demoralize the spirit of the Japanese army in the world. A day later Investigation Agency Business BPUPKI Preparation of Indonesian Independence, or "Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai", renamed PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence) or also called Dokuritsu Junbi Inkai in Japanese, to further confirm the desire and goal of achieving the independence of Indonesia. On August 9, 1945, the second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, causing the Japanese surrendered to the United States and its allies. This moment is also used by Indonesia for its independence.

Sukarno, Hatta PPKI as leader and as a former chairman Radjiman Wedyodiningrat BPUPKI flown to Dalat, 250 km north-east of Saigon, Vietnam to meet Marshal Terauchi. They reported that the Japanese were on the verge of defeat and will give independence to Indonesia. Meanwhile in Indonesia, on August 10, 1945, Sutan Syahrir had heard the news on the radio that the Japanese had surrendered to the Allies. The underground fighters preparing to proclaim the independence of Indonesia, and rejected form of independence given as a gift of Japan.

On August 12, 1945, Japan by Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, told Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman that the Japanese government will soon give independence to Indonesia and the proclamation of independence can be implemented within a few days, depending on how the PPKI. Despite this independence for Indonesia Japan on August 24.

Two days later, while Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman returned to their homeland from Dalat, Sutan Syahrir urged Sukarno declared independence immediately because he thought the meeting in Dalat as a ruse Japan, because the Japanese all the time had to be surrendered to the Allies and to avoid a split in the the nationalist camp, between the anti-and pro-Japanese. Syahrir Hatta told about the meeting in Dalat. Sukarno was not yet convinced that the Japanese had surrendered, and the proclamation of independence of Indonesia when it could cause great bloodshed, and can have fatal consequences if the fighters Indonesia is not ready. Soekarno Hatta warned that Syahrir no right to declare independence because it is the right of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI). Meanwhile Syahrir agency considers PPKI is made in Japan and the proclamation of independence by PPKI just a 'gift' from Japan (sic).

On 14 August 1945 Japan surrendered to the Allies. Japanese Army and Navy are still in power in Indonesia because of Japan has promised to restore the power in Indonesia in the hands of the Allies. Sutan Sjahrir, Wikana, Dervish, and Saleh Chaerul this news through BBC radio. After hearing rumors of Japan will its knees, the younger group urged parents to immediately proclaim the independence of Indonesia. But the older group did not want to rush. They do not want the bloodshed at the time of the proclamation. Consultation was carried out in the form of meetings PPKI. Young Group does not approve the meeting, considering PPKI is a body established by the Japanese. They want freedom to the efforts of our nation itself, not giving Japan. Sukarno and Hatta went to military rulers of Japan (Gunsei) to obtain confirmation in his office in Koningsplein (Merdeka Square). But the office was empty.

Sukarno and Hatta with Soebardjo then to the office Bukanfu, Rear Admiral Maeda, in Jalan Medan Merdeka Utara (Maeda house on Jl Imam Bonjol 1). Maeda welcome them with congratulations on their success in Dalat. As he says he has not received confirmation and are still waiting for instructions from Tokyo. Coming home from Maeda, Sukarno and Hatta immediately prepare for the meeting of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) on August 16 at 10 am the next day at the office Pejambon Road No 2 to discuss all things related to the preparation of the Declaration of Independence.

A day later, the pressure fluctuation takeover Indonesia requires mounting launched the youth of some classes. PPKI meeting on August 16 at 10 am was not implemented because of Sukarno and Hatta did not appear. The meeting participants do not know Rengasdengklok event has occurred.

The young fighters, including Chaerul Saleh, Sukarni, and Wikana - supposedly reportedly burned surge heroism after discussion with the title Datuk Tan Malaka Ibrahim - who joined the underground movement lost patience, and in the early morning of August 16, 1945. Together Shodancho Singgih, a member of PETA, and another boy, they brought Sukarno (along Fatmawati Guntur-old and 9 months) and Hatta, the Rengasdengklok, which became known as Rengasdengklok event. The goal is to Ir. Sukarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta is not affected by the Japanese. Here, they are re-assured Soekarno that Japan had surrendered and the fighters are ready to fight the Japanese, no matter what.

In Jakarta, the younger, Wikana, and old groups, namely Mr. Ahmad Soebardjo negotiations. Mr. Ahmad Soebardjo agreed to proclaim the independence of Indonesia in Jakarta. then diutuslah Yusuf Ahmad Soebardjo Kunto to take into Rengasdengklok. They picked Ir. Sukarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta returned to Jakarta. Mr. Ahmad Soebardjo managed to convince the youth to not rush - rush declared independence. After arriving in Jakarta, they go home each. Given that the Hotel Des Indes (now a shopping complex in Harmony) can not be used for meetings after 10 pm, then Rear Admiral Maeda bid to use his house (now a museum building proclamation formulation) as a meeting place PPKI accepted by the leaders of Indonesia.

Meeting Sukarno / Hatta with Major General Rear Admiral Nishimura and Maeda. At night, Soekarno and Hatta returned to Jakarta. Maj. Gen. Moichiro Yamamoto, XVI Army Chief of Staff (Army) who became head of the military government of Japan (Gunseikan) in the Dutch East Indies refused to accept Sukarno-Hatta delivered by Tadashi Maeda and ordered Major General Otoshi Nishimura, Head of the General Affairs Department of government Japanese military, to receive the group. Nishimura argued that since the afternoon of August 16, 1945 has received an order from Tokyo that Japan should maintain the status quo, can not give permission to prepare the proclamation of Indonesian independence, as had been promised by Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam.

Sukarno and Hatta regretted that decision and insinuated Nishimura whether an officer spirited attitude Bushido, break a promise to be pitied by the Allies. Finally Sukarno-Hatta requested that do not impede the work PPKI Nishimura, perhaps by way of pretending not to know. Seeing the hot debate Maeda quietly leave the room because it was warned by Nishimura in order to obey Tokio Maeda, and he knows as Navy liaison officer (Kaigun) in the Army (Rikugun) he does not have the authority to decide.

Once out of the house Nishimura, Sukarno-Hatta headed home admiral Maeda (now Jalan Imam Bonjol 1) accompanied by Myoshi to conduct a meeting to prepare the text of the Proclamation. After greeting Sukarno-Hatta left arguing with Nishimura, Maeda resigned to her bedroom. Preparation of the text of the Proclamation made by Sukarno, M. Hatta, Achmad Soebardjo and witnessed by Soekarni, BM Diah, Sudiro (Grandma) and Sayuti Melik. Myoshi half-drunk in the back seat listening to the preparation of the text but then there is a sentence of Shigetada Nishijima as if he shared proclamation interfere with the preparation and suggested that the transfer of power that just means the administrative power. On this Bung Karno confirmed that the transfer of power that means "transfer of power". Bung Hatta, Subardjo, BM Diah, Sukarni, Sudiro and Malik Sajuti nothing but justify the claim in some quarters Nishijima Nishijima claims are echoed.

Once the draft is complete agreement, Sajuti copying and typing text using a typewriter taken from the German Navy offices, owned by Major (Sea) Dr. Hermann Kandeler. At first reading of the proclamation will be made at the Field Ikada, due to the security reasons moved to the residence of Sukarno, East Pegangsaan Road 56 (now Jl. Proclamation no. 1).

Negotiations between the younger and older groups in the preparation of the text of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence took place at 2:00 to 4:00 a.m. in the morning. Text of the proclamation was written in the dining room at Admiral Tadashi Maeda Jln Imam Bonjol No. 1. The author of the text of the proclamation is Ir. Sukarno, Drs. Moh. Hatta, and Mr. Ahmad Soebarjo. The concept proclamation written by Ir. Sukarno himself. In the front room, attended BM Diah Sayuti Melik, Sukarni and Soediro. Sukarni proposed that the text of the proclamation was signed Ir. Sukarno and Drs. Moh. Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian nation. Indonesia's Proclamation text typed by Sayuti Melik. The next morning, August 17, 1945, at the residence of Sukarno, East 56th Street Pegangsaan have attended, among others Soewirjo, Wilopo, Gafar Pringgodigdo, Tabrani and Trimurti. The event begins at 10:00 pm with the reading of the proclamation by Sukarno and connected speech without text. Then the flag, which had been sewn by Mrs. Fatmawati, raised, followed by remarks by Soewirjo, deputy mayor of Jakarta at the time and Moewardi, led Barisan Pioneer.

At first Trimurti asked to raise the flag but he refused on the grounds pengerekan flag should be carried by a soldier. Therefore instituted Hendraningrat Latif, a soldier MAP, assisted by Soehoed for the task. A young woman emerged from behind a tray flag (Sang Saka Merah Putih), were sewn by Fatmawati few days earlier. After the flag flying, the audience sing Indonesia Raya. Until now, the flag is still stored heritage monument museum National Monument.

After the ceremony took place, approximately 100 members of Barisan Pioneers led S.Brata come in a hurry because they do not know where sudden changes of Ikada to Pegangsaan. They demand repeat readings Proclamation Sukarno, but was rejected. Finally Hatta gave a brief message to them.

On August 18, 1945, the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) decisions, approve and set the Basic Law (Constitution) as the foundation of the Republic of Indonesia, which became known as the Constitution 45. Thus formed the Government in the form of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia) with sovereignty in the hands of the people who carried out entirely by the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), which will be established later.

After that Sukarno and M.Hatta elected at the proposal of Oto PPKI Iskandardinata and approval of the president and vice-president of the Republic of Indonesia first. President and Vice President will be assisted by a National Committee.

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