Breathing Systems Human

 Humans need oxygen supplied continuously to the process of cell respiration, and remove excess carbon dioxide as a toxic waste product of the process.

Pertukatan between oxygen with carbon dioxide gas do to the process of cellular respiration continues. Oxygen is needed for the process of cellular respiration comes from the atmosphere, which provides oxygen gas content as much as 21% of all existing gas. Oxygen enters the body through the mediation of a respirator that is outside. In humans, the alveoli in the lungs are functioning as a surface for gas exchange places.

The course of Breathing Air

1. Air enters through the nostrils
2. through the nasopharynx
3. through oralfarink
4. through the glottis
5. into the trachea
5. into the so-called branching trachea bronchus
6. into the bronchus branching called bronchioles
7. ends at the end of the bronchus air bubbles form called alveolus (plural: alveoli)

actual air exchange occurs only in the alveoli. In the adult lung, there are about 300 million alveoli, with a surface area of ??about 160 m2 or about 1 times the size of a tennis court, or an area of ??100 times that of our skin.

Nasal (Nose)

The nose is the respiratory organs of the first through the air outside. In the nasal hairs and mucus membranes are useful for filtering incoming air, mucus useful to humidify the air, and Konka to mengangatkan breathing air.


Pharynx is branching two channels, namely channels throat (nasopharynx) which is the respiratory tract, esophagus and gastrointestinal (oralfaring) which is the digestive tract.

The larynx (throat base)

is the base of the respiratory tract (trachea). Tersusu the larynx cartilage structures in the form of slabs and formed Adam's apple. Above there is a valve larynx (epiglottis) that will close when swallowing. Valve prevents food and drink into the respiratory tract. At the base there is a membrane larink sound. Membrane voice will vibrate when blown air from the lungs

Trachea (windpipe)

Windpipe is located in the neck in front of the esophagus. Rod-shaped throat with a tube length of 10 cm. tracheal wall consists of 3 layers, layer in the form of ciliated epithelium and mucus. The middle layer is made up of rings of cartilage and smooth muscle. the outer layer is composed of connective tissue. Cartilage ring serves to maintain the shape of the pipe stem throat, while the mucous membranes vibrating hair cells function declined dust and foreign objects in with the air breathing. Due to the repulsion force we will cough or sneeze.

Bronchus (branch throat)

End of a two-pronged throat called bronchus, left bronchus and the right bronchus. The structure of the right bronchus is shorter than the left bronchus. two each bronchus into the lungs. In the lungs bonchus branches into bronchioles leading to each lobe (hemisphere) of the lung. right bronchus branches into three bronchioles, while the left fork into 2 bronchioles. The small bronchioles branch into the bubble lungs called alveoli. Alveolar wall contains many blood capillaries. through capillaries within the alveolar oxygen diffuses into the blood.

Pulmonary (alveolar)

The lungs are located in the chest cavity above diafraghma. Diafraghma is a diaphragm that limits the chest cavity with the abdominal cavity. The lungs consist of two parts: the left lung and right lung. The right lung has three wattle while the left lung is composed of two wattle.

The lungs are covered by two pieces of mucous membrane called the pleura. Outer pleural membrane adjacent to the inner wall of the chest cavity is called the parietal pleura, while wrapping the lungs is called the visceral pleura. Between the two membranes are fluid-filled pleural cavity pleural serves to overcome friction when the lungs inflate and deflate.

Mechanism of breathing

Distinguished human respiratory chest breathing and abdominal breathing. Chest breathing occurs through the phases of inspiration and expiration, as well as for abdominal breathing.

Mechanisms of respiratory chest

1. Inspiration Phase chest breathing

Mechanisms inspired chest breathing as follows:
Muscles between the ribs (muscular intercostalis external) contract -> raised ribs (flat position) -> lungs inflate - air pressure in the lungs become smaller than the outside air pressure -> outside air into lungs

2. Expiratory phase of respiration chest
Mechanism of expiratory abdominal breathing is as follows:
Relaxation of muscles between the ribs -decreased rib -lungs shrink - air pressure inside the lungs is greater than the air pressure outside -air out of the lungs.
abdominal breathing mechanism 1. Abdominal breathing inspiration phase

Mechanism inspiration abdominal breathing as follows:

diaphragm (diafraghma) contract - from curved to flat position -> lungs expand -> air pressure in the lung is smaller than the outside air pressure - air intake

2. Abdominal breathing expiratory phase

Mechanism of expiratory abdominal breathing as follows:
diafraghma muscle relaxation -position of horizontal curved back -> lungs deflate -> air pressure in the lungs more than the outside air pressure besas - air out of the lungs.

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