# History of Steam Engines

1 Hero (10-70)

The earliest record of the history of the steam engine technology, we can see the city of Alexandria in the year 75. There are a mathematician named Hero, who is also known premises name "Heros or" Heron "who wrote three books about the mechanical properties of air and introduce the design of a simple steam engine. These machines are known as aeolipile or Aeolypile, or also called Eolipile.

The working principle of this machine is to use steam pressure to rotate the ball (vessel) containing water as a raw material producing steam. Ball (vessel) could be spinning because of the encouragement of the steam coming out of the nozzle which is located on the side of the vessel. Hero method that converts steam energy into motion is the basis for his successors to develop steam engine technology in the future.

2 Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615)

Giovanni Battista della Porta della Porta or Gambattista or also known by the name of John Baptist Porta was a scholar, Polymath, and playwright who came from Naples, Italy. He is the scientist who first discovered the role of steam in creating a vacuum.

The theory put forward is that if the water is converted into steam in a closed container can result in increased pressure. Vice versa, if the steam is condensed into water in a closed room it will result in a decrease of pressure. The theory that later would become the main concept of the design in the development of the steam engine made by his successors.

3 Denis Papin (1647-1712)

In the year 1679 a physicist, mathematician and inventor of the French found a tool called a steam digester which led to the invention of the steam engine and the presser cooker (pressure cooking pot). The findings he worked together with fellow named Robert Boyle, a filusuf, physicists, chemists, inventors, and scientists of Irish nationality.

Description:

A = Furnace
B = vessel
C = Close vessel
D = bolt fasteners
E = Valve
F = Stand lid
H = Closing furnace

This tool is shaped like a container with a lid that is used to produce pressurized steam. To keep the device did not explode, Papin complement these findings with a valve that can be moved up and down as the exhaust steam to regulate the pressure inside the container. Besides Papin also developed the engine with the piston at the top to add a closed cylinder that will move up and down according to the theory discovered by Giovanni Battista della Porta. The concept is then initiated the discovery of the first steam engine in the world that uses a piston and cylinder engine.

4 Thomas Savery (1650-1715)

Thomas Savery was an engineer who worked on the British military and British inventor. In 1698 he invented the steam engine in the world. Discovery begins when he worked at a coal mine that had difficulty in pumping the water used to irrigate the mine.

The working principle of this machine is to raise the pressure of the steam in the boiler. The vapor is then inserted into the vessel of the work, making it possible to blow the water out through the pipe. When the temperature in the vessel to be hot as the steam filled the kettle and vessel faucet is closed, if necessary, the outside of the vessel cooled. This resulted in the steam inside to condense, creating a partial vacuum and atmospheric pressure pushes the water up through the pipe until the vessel is full. At this point the closed faucet at the bottom of the vessel, and the vessel and pipe spigot is opened to drain the pipes from the boiler. High vapor pressure will force the water out of the vessel.

5 Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729)

Thomas Newcomen was an English blacksmith who invented the steam engine the atmosphere, an improvement on the previous design of Thomas Savery. Newcomen steam engine uses the power of atmospheric pressure to work. In the Newcomen engine was the intensity of the pressure is not limited by the vapor pressure, unlike what Thomas Savery patented in 1698.

In 1712, Thomas Newcomen together with John Calley built the first machine over a pit filled with water in which the machine is used to pump water out of mines. Newcomen engine was the predecessor engine James Watt and one of the most exciting piece of technology developed during the 17th century.

The figure shows the position of the boiler is located just below the cylinder. First steam flow from the boiler into the cylinder. When the piston mancapai peak, the water is sprayed into the cylinders to cool the steam that forms a vacuum. Piston driven down by the weight of the air above it (15 pounds per inci2 of the piston). The cycle occurs repeatedly.

6 James Watt (1736-1819)

James Watt was a mechanical engineer and inventor from Scotland. In 1769 James Watt patented a separate condenser connected to the cylinder by a valve. Unlike Newcomen steam engine belonging, the steam engine by James Watt is there a condenser to cool the hot cylinder. James Watt's engine soon became the design for all modern steam engine triggered the industrial revolution. Watt power unit named after James Watt 1 Watt magnitude which is equivalent to 1/746 HP.Keterangan:

C = Cylinder Steam
E = exhaust valve
H = linking the crankshaft to the

beam

N = pump water
O = crankshaft
Q = Regulator (Govenor)
P = Torak
R = Trunk air pump
T = input valve steam

piston and beam through the motions

parallel gdc
m = lever steam inflow

The fundamental difference from James Watt's engine by Thomas Newcomen engine belonging to the location of the condenser is used. If the engine Newcomen steam condensing chamber for working together with the cylinder, then the engine James Watt steam condensing chamber to separate from the cylinder. In addition, the mechanism driving the piston of the engine James Watt using the rotary motion of a spinning drive wheel, unlike the Newcomen engine that uses the translational motion (back and forth) of the water pump.