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HUMAN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


The endocrine system is a control system without duct glands (ductless), which produces hormones that circulate in the body via the bloodstream to affect other organs. Hormones act as "messengers" and carried by the bloodstream to different cells in the body, which in turn will translate the "message" into an action. The endocrine system does not include exocrine glands such as salivary glands, sweat glands and other glands in the channel gastroinstestin.

Endocrine glands (endocrineglarul) consists of (1) the pituitary gland or the pituitary gland (pituitary hypophysisor glanrl) located in the cavity of the head near the base of the brain, (2) thyroid gland (thyroid glanrl) or adenoids are located at the front of the neck, (3 ) parathyroid gland (parathyroidglanrl) near the thyroid gland, (4) the suprarenal gland (suprarenalglanrl) located at the poles of the left kidney and right, (5) the islets of Langerhans (islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas gland tissue, (6) gonad ( gonarl) males in the testes and ovaries in women. The placenta can also be categorized as an endocrine gland because it produces hormones.

Sized pituitary gland is no larger than a peanut is protected at the base of the skull. The gland is divided into two parts, the front and rear. The back is a continuation of the hypothalamus (the part of the brain). This gland produces growth hormone (growth hormone), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), gonad stimulating (FSH), and others. Much growth hormone is produced during the growth period, but decreased after the person reaches adulthood. If the hormone is produced in excess during the growth period, the child will get to be very high.

The thyroid gland or thyroid gland shaped like a butterfly attached to the front of the windpipe (trachea). These glands come up and down on swallowing. Enlargement of the thyroid gland called goiter or goitre. This enlargement can be caused by many hormone production or due to iodine deficiency decreases the production of hormones, and in other cases because of tumor. Excessive hormone production can lead to symptoms of heart palpitations, which when drawn-Iarut will weaken the heart, a lot of sweat and weight loss, and protruding eyes like a fish chef. Active thyroid enlargement is called a hot nodule and inactive called cold nodule.

Parathyroid glands produce parathormone which helped regulate blood calcium levels. The gland is about the size of rice, beIjumlah 4, located at the corners of the thyroid gland, because it is sometimes truncated participate in thyroid surgery. If that happens, the question does not matter if there are still remaining 1-2 glands. Without this gland in question will experience muscle cramps due to interruption of blood calcium levels.

Suprarenal glands, the edge (cortex) and central (medulla). Part cortexmenghasilkan hormones regulating body fluid and electrolyte balance (adrenocorticotrophichormone, ACTH) and vital for life. Medulla produces adrenaline and also part of the sympathetic system. Suprarenal gland also produces sex-hormone dalarn amounts.

Pancreatic gland by Langerhans islands scattered in it produces insulin and glucagon honnon. These hormones regulate glucose levels and the use of blood dalarn. Impaired insulin production honnon resulted diabetes mellitus.

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