1. Understanding Health Anthropology According to Hasan and Prasad (1959)
Health Anthropology is a branch of science that studies the human aspects of human biology and culture (including history) from the standpoint of view to understand medicine (medical), medical history medico-historical), medical legal (medico-legal), the social aspects of medicine (medico-social) and human health problems.
2. Understanding Health Anthropology According to Weaver, (1968)
Health Anthropology is a branch of applied anthropology that deal with various aspects of health and disease.
3. Understanding Health Anthropology According Hochstrasser and Tapp (1970)
Biobudaya Anthropology is the understanding of human health and his works, which are related to health and medicine.
4. Understanding Health According Fabrga Anthropology (1972)
Health Anthropology is the study of the various factors that explain the mechanisms and processes that play a role in or influence the ways in which individuals and groups affected by or respond to illness and disease, and also studied the problems of illness and disease with emphasis on behavior patterns.
5. Understanding Health According Lieban Anthropology (1977)
Health Anthropology is the study of medical phenomena influenced by social and cultural, and social and cultural phenomena illuminated by the medical aspects.
Social factors and cultural help determine the etiology of the disease and spread through their influence on the relationship between human populations and the natural environment, or through a direct effect on the health of populations. In understanding Lieban, health and disease is a measurement of the effectiveness with which human groups combining cultural and biological resources, adapt to their environment. Lieban mention that there are essentially four main areas, namely health atropologi ecological and epidemic, ethnomedicine, medical aspects of the social system, and the medical and cultural change.
6. Understanding Health Anthropology According to Landy (1977)
Health Anthropology is the study of human confrontation with disease and sickness, and the composition of an adaptive (ie medical system and medicines) made by groups of people to deal with the dangers of the disease in humans today.
Landy also stated that there are three generalizations are generally approved by anthropologists, namely:
- disease in some form is a universal fact of life of the human family. It happens in the whole time, place and masyarkaat,
- groups of humans develop methods and roles allocated, together with the resources and structures to replicate with and respond to disease,
- group of humans develop several sets of trust, understanding and perception that are consistent with their cultural matrix, to determine or realize the disease. According to Landy, different people, different cultures, have different views on health and disease, and also different when treating the patient.
Understanding Health Anthropology According to Foster and Anderson (1978)
Health Anthropology is a discipline that gives attention to those aspects of the biological and socio-budya of human behavior, especially about the ways of interaction between the two throughout the history of human life, affecting human health and disease.
Made in the definition of Foster / Anderson flatly stated that the anthropological study of objects that affect the health of health and disease in humans.
According to Foster / Anderson, medical anthropology examines issues of health and illness are two different poles poles poles biological and socio-cultural.
The principal concern is biological pole Foster / Anderson is
1) Growth and development of man,
2) The role of disease in human evolution, and
3) Paleopatologi (the study of ancient diseases).
While the principal focus on socio-cultural pole covers
1) Traditional Medical Systems (etnomedisin),
2) The issue of health officers and their professional preparation,
3) The behavior of pain,
4) The relationship between physicians and patients, and
5) The dynamics of western efforts to bring health services to indigenous people.
Foster and Anderson (1978), states that contemporary medical anthropology can be found in four different resources, namely Physical Anthropology, Ethnomedicine, Personality and Cultural Studies, and Public Health International.
Foster and Anderson (1987), said that the bio-cultural environment that is best learned from the ecological point of view. Since World War II, many anthropologists who move into a cross-cultural study of medical systems, bioekologi and factors of socio-cultural factors that affect health and disease onset.
Ecological approach is the basis for the study of the problems of epidemiology, where the behavior of individuals and groups to determine health status and the incidence of disease vary in different populations. For example, the people living in the tropics, malaria can develop and attack them while in cold climates not found the disease, or in the area of 1700 meters above sea level malaria was not found.
Another example, the more advanced a nation, dideritapun different diseases emerging nation. Infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, tuberculosis, etc.. generally found in developing countries, human groups to adapt to the environment and humans must learn to exploit the resources available to meet their needs. This interaction can be social and cultural psychological often play a role in triggering the disease. The disease is part of the human environment example is Kuru disease (see Foster / Anderson, p 27-29).
Understanding Health Anthropology According to McElroy and Townsend (1985)
Health Anthropology is a study of how social factors affect health and the environment and awareness of alternative ways of understanding and treating disease.
McElroy and Townsend, who took the historical view also emphasizes the importance of adaptation and social change by stating that a large number of medical anthropologists are now dealing with the health and diseases related to the human adaptation along geographical distance and time period widely from prehistoric to the future.
Both experts agree on at least six sub-anthropological disciplines relevant to the Health Anthropology Physical Anthropology, Archaeology Pre-Historical, Cultural Anthropology, Anthropology of ecological, Evolutionary Theory, and Linguistic Anthropology.
Conclusion Understanding Health Anthropology Experts
Anthropology of Health based on the definition of some experts could be concluded that medical anthropology is the study of human health such as prevention, treatment and cure of both the past and the present that relate to cultural and biological and involves a wide range of disciplines (interdisciplinary).
Anthropological study of socio-cultural health of all people associated with diseased and healthy as a center of culture both pain associated with trust (misfortunes), supernatural / witch, healing diseases.
The main task of medical anthropologists is how individuals in society perceive and react to ill health and how the type will be selected, to learn about the cultural and social circumstances in the community of residence. In the Anthropology of Health covers a wide range of interrelated disciplines and linkages.