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Context Theory Elaboration


Elaboration theory can be studied from two contexts. The first context for the show position in the classification of the elaboration of the theory of the variables included in the context of learning theory and the second is intended to look at the position in the elaboration of the theory of procedural sequence learning system design or better known as instructional design. The first context is described as follows: Reigeluth and Merrill (1979) in Reigeluth (1983) split the main variables, namely the so-called learning-conditions-outcomes methods. The third variable is the learning conditions, learning methods and learning outcomes have been described drawn 2.3.

Variable learning methods as mentioned previously classified into three types, namely: (a) methods / strategies for organizing learning content, (b) methods / strategies to deliver learning content, (c) methods / strategies for managing learning. Elaboration of the theory are not paying attention to the method of delivery and management of learning methods (Reigeluth, 1983), although both are important in the integration of models and theories.

The second variable. Extremely meaningful to planners and developers of learning. Elaboration theory is only included in the variable method of organizing learning macro level. Actual macro level is composed of four major issues, namely the so-called 4S (selection, sequencing, synthesizing, and summarizing) the contents of the field of study. Context of elaboration in instructional design models can be viewed from a variety of instructional design steps revealed by some experts. This discussion will be revealed on the opinion of two experts learning. Instructional design measures proposed Degeng (1997), as follows.

1. Analysis of the purpose and characteristics of the field of study
2. Analysis of learning resources (constraints)
3. Analysis of the characteristics-learning
4. Establish learning objectives and learning content
5. Establish a strategy of organizing the learning content
6. Establish learning content delivery strategy
7. Establish learning management strategies
8. Development of learning outcomes measurement procedures

The actual eight steps can be grouped into three parts. Step analysis of the conditions of learning (number 1, 2, 3, and 4). Development measures include numbers 5, 6, and 7. And the last is the measurement of learning outcomes measures (number 8). From the steps above, the model elaboration is needed on the number 5 is the determination step of organizing the learning content strategy. This step is an important step that is often overlooked in the design of learning. Especially organizing the macro level, which is related to the overall organization of the content areas of study will be taught. Instructional design measures proposed Setyosari (2001) includes several steps, as follows.

1. The main reason to formulate learning objectives learning design is nothing but want to achieve a number of goals expected education. Learning objectives is a statement about the desired changes or expected. In the implementation, there are two types of goals are general purpose and special purpose learning.

2. Analyzing the characteristics of the subjects students aim to do this step anaiisis the behavior and characteristics-learning. Results of the analysis are used to determine which abilities and skills that allow for the learning-learning to perform tasks.

3. Designing learning strategies learning strategies, are all factors in the design of instructional, are classified into three kinds, namely strategies: organizational, presentation, and management. Organizing strategy refers to how the learning will be presented in order (sequence), what type of content to be presented, and how the content or materials presented. Media delivery strategies related to learning what to wear and how si-learning will grouped. Management strategies include scheduling and allocation of learning resources.

4. Establish a strategy to develop media materials and teaching materials development which includes the design and delivery of learning, is the responsibility of the learner in addition to other main duty is as a designer (designer), executive (executor), and assessors (evaluators). In developing teaching materials, learners adapt to the learning strategies used. Several factors related to the selection of media attention was (1) the availability of media in an environment that will be used, (2) the ability of the designer to produce materials that fit with the media, (3) flexibility, (4) durability, (5) the suitability of the material , (6) cost effectiveness.

5. Evaluating student performance evaluation is unavoidable in the process pembelajaran.Evaluasi wider than the measurement, which means that the process of granting skor.Evaluasi as a systematic process to determine how far the objectives have been achieved by the teaching-learning.

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