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Defining the Learning Method Elaboration


In Big Indonesian Dictionary explained that: "The method used is the regular way to carry out a job in order to achieve the desired fit." According to Reigeluth that "elaboration theory is a theory about learning to design basic argument that the lesson should be organized from simple material toward the hope of a complex with a developing understanding of the meaningful context so that the ideas developed into an integrated". Reigeluth explains that "The Elaboration Theory of instruction was developed to provide holistic alternatives to the parts-to-whole sequencing and superficial coverage of content that have been so typical of both education and training over the past five to ten decades".

Elaboration learning methods are developed to obtain a holistic alternative to the majority of the whole series and the shallowness of coverage your heart's content. It is a peculiarity of the education and training that has been going on for five to ten decades. Reigeluth further said, that: "The Elaboration Theory is only intended for more complex tasks. It is based on the observation that complex cognitive tasks are done differently under different conditions, each set of conditions that defines a different version of the task, and than some of those versions are much more complex than others ".

Elaboration learning method is intended only for tasks that are more complex. It is based on the observation that a complex cognitive task force different on different conditions, where a set of conditions based on the shape of different tasks, and some will be more complex shape than others. For example, solving mathematical problems will be easier when we settle for the one about the unknown than two unknown problem.

The Elaboration theory recocnizes two major kinds of domain expertise: Conceptual (understanding what) and Theoretical (understanding why). Simplest in their form, these are concepts and principles, respectively, and in their more complex forms, they are conceptual knowledge structures (or concept maps) for "understanding what" and both causal models and theoretical knowledge structures for "understanding why".

Elaboration learning method consists of two types of large parts of the territory, the scope of the concept (understanding what) and coverage of the theory (to understand why). In simplified form, the concepts and principles, divisibility, and in more complex forms, namely the structure of the concept of knowledge (or map concept) to understand what and why the two models as well as the structure of the theory of knowledge to understand why. Elaboration learning method proposed by Reigeluth and Stein by using the seven components of the strategy, namely:

(1) The order of elaboration to the main structure of the teaching.
(2) The order of prerequisite learning (in learning each subject).
(3) Summarizer (summary).
(4) Synthesizer (synthesis).
(5) Analogy.
(6) Cognitive strategy activator (activation of cognitive strategies).
(7) Control study.

In general, the learning method consists of seven components elaboration learning strategies as follows:

a. Conceptual structure

Conceptual structure is a structure that shows relationships higher / lower among concepts. Concept structure contains the concepts of subjects to achieve competence conceptual orientation. Three important types of conceptual structure is part taxonomy, taxonomy type, matrix or table. Based on the description above, including mathematics conceptual taxonomy of type section. Taxonomy is part of the conceptual structure shows that the concepts are part of a more general concept.

b. Prerequisites Learning

Prerequisite learning is a structure that shows the concepts that must be learned before another concept that can be understood. Therefore, the concept can show a conditional relationship between a concept in the study with a new concept. Prerequesit learning can be regarded as a critical component on an issue / idea. Is a critical component of the principles are:

1. Recognize the attributes (the parts)
2. Recognize the relationship or change the relationship between the concepts with new concepts

c. Summary (Summarizer)

Summary of a review of the (review) of the material that has been studied to maintain retention. Summary function is to provide a brief statement about the material that has been studied with reference examples are easy to remember for each concept. Summaries are given at the end of a lesson and just summarize the newly learned material called internal summary (internal Summarizer), while the sum of all the material over several times referred to summarize external learning (within set Summarizer).

d. Pensitesis (Synthesizer)

Pensintesis is a component of the learning methods of elaboration serves to demonstrate the linkages between the concepts. Pensintesis important because it will give you some knowledge about the relationship between concepts, ease of understanding, to show the context of improving the meaningfulness of a concept, providing motivational influence, and improve retention.

e. Analogy

Analogy is an important component in learning as ease of understanding by comparing new knowledge with knowledge already known to students in advance. Its use will be more effective if it is delivered at the beginning of learning.

f. Activation Strategies Cognitive (Cognitive Strategy Activator)

Activation is a cognitive strategy study skills needed by students to adjust their internal processes when students learn, remember, and think that consisted of two ways: through the provision of teaching design (not direct) and having students use it (directly). The use of images, diagrams, formulas, symbols and guide questions may be used for the purpose of effective learning.

g. Learning control

Control study is the restriction of freedom of student learning as determined by the teacher in the classroom. Freedom includes the freedom of students to sort and select:

1. The material that has been studied
2. Rank or level of difficulty of the material to be studied
3. Component of the learning strategies that will be used
4. Specific cognitive strategies students are doing when it comes to learning.

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