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Definition and History of Gymnastics


Gymnastics is a physical activity that is done either as a sport or as a separate exercise to other sports. Unlike the other sports that generally measure the results of activities in a particular object, referring to the shape of motion exercises are done with a combination of integrated and transformed every part of the body of the components of motor skills such as: strength, speed, balance, flexibility, agility and accuracy . With appropriate coordination and governance motion sequences are aligned to form a series of interesting artistic movement.

According to G. Menke Frank in the Encyclopedia of Sport, as Bannes and Company, New York, 1960, gymnastics consists of broad movements / lot or whole of the exercises that can build muscle or body shape such as: wrist, back, arms and so forth. Gymnastics or exercises including: elements of a somersault, jump, climb and balance. Moderate Imam Hidayat in his book Lessons Practice Guidance Gymnastics, STO London, in March 1970 stated, "Gymnastics is body workout created deliberately, systematically arranged and made a conscious effort to establish and develop personal goals in harmony".

Gymnastics itself there are various, such as: ancient gymnastics, gymnastic school, gymnastic equipment, corrective gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, turnen, artistic gymnastics. In general gymnastics, from year to year improvement and growing. Since the late 19th century began to be contested. Established international gymnastics container, with the name of Federation International de Gymnastique (FIG), which manages among others: Artistic Gymnastics (Artistic Gymnastics) and Rhythmic gymnastics (Modern Rhythmic).

At the school level or junior matches can be restricted to certain numbers, usually gymnastics floor and jumping horses. National and International level matches for men consists of 6 (six) numbers ie: gymnastics floor, jumping horses, saddle horses, parallel bars, single bars, and bracelets. As for women there are 4 (four) numbers: gymnastics floor, the horses jump, balance beam, and the storied bars.

Assessment is given by 4 (four) led the referee oelh a head referee. Each participant had to match the 2 (two) types of circuits on each number or device, a series of mandatory (which has been determined in advance) and a series of options or free respectively. One value is the average of the two middle values ​​by removing the highest and lowest values ​​of 4 (four) referee. Gymnast with the highest accumulated value into the first champion in the category of all-round, won the second highest to the second and so on.

Team champion is determined by the sum of five (5) best value of 6 (six) members of the team and every tool. 6 (six) best participants of all athletes take part in the finals in each athlete and the final value is the average of a series of free / selection and previous mandatory together with a series of value-free / in the final choice. This value determines the winner of each tool sequence.

The referee gives the value at the same time. The maximum value is: 10,000. The punishments given to the reduction in the value of the wrong execution, poor control, helped others, falling from equipment or overdue. Moreover assessed also the difficulty of movement and aesthetic appearance. Large reduction in value is tithing. Assessment regulations revised every 2 (two) years. All exercises have difficulty factors, namely: A, B and C. tersukar is The series of exercises is usually composed of static attitudes that require a large force connected with rhythmic movements corresponding y agn. While a number of motion require strength berntuk others require mobility or skills.

According to the origin of the word, gymnastics (gymnastics) comes from the Greek to describe a variety of motion. In ancient Greek the century, gymnastics done to maintain healthy growth and create a harmonious body, and not contested. At the end of the 19th century, the rules in gymnastics began specified and made to be contested. At the beginning of the modern Olympic Games, gymnastics is considered as an art rather than as a demonstration of one of the sport regularly.

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