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Amyloidosis: Causes, Types, Symptoms, and Treatment


Amyloidosis is a condition in which a protein called amyloid builds up in tissues and organs. When that happens, it will affect the performance of the body. Amyloidosis is a serious health problem that can cause life-threatening organ failure.
Amyloidosis
Causes and Types of Amyloidosis
Many different body proteins that can lead to the formation of amyloid deposits, but only a few are associated with significant health problems. Type protein and where he collected will determine the type of amyloidosis that to a person. Amyloid deposit may accumulate throughout the body or only in one area.

There are different types of amyloidosis:
Primary amyloidosis (AL systemic). This occurs without a known cause, but has been seen in people with blood cancer called multiple myeloma. It is the most common type of amyloidosis. "Systemic" means affecting the entire body. The body parts most commonly affected are the kidneys, heart, liver, intestines, and certain nerves. AL stands for "amyloid light chain", which is a type of protein that is responsible for amyloidosis.

Secondary amyloidosis (systemic AA). This is the result of other chronic inflammatory diseases, such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), and certain cancers. At least as affecting lien, kidneys, liver, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes. AA means type of protein amyloid A amyloidosis causes.

Dialysis related amyloidosis (DRA). It is more common in older adults and people who have been dialyzed for more than 5 years. Forms of amyloidosis is caused by deposition of beta-2 -microglobulin found in the blood. Storage may occur in many different tissues, but most often affects the bones, joints, and tendons.

Amyloidosis Descent / Family (AF). This is a rare form that is passed down through families. This is caused by amyloid protein transthyretin (TTR) is not normal, which is made in the liver. This protein is responsible for the most common forms of hereditary amyloidosis.

Senile Systemic Amyloidosis (SSA). This is due to the deposit of normal TTR in the heart and other tissues. It occurs most often in older men.

Specific organ amyloidosis. This causes deposits of amyloid protein in a single organ, including the skin (skin amyloidosis).

While this is some kind of storage amyloid has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, but rare brain involved in systemic amyloidosis.

Risk Factors Amyloidosis
Amyloidosis men experience more often than women. Amyloidosis risk increases with increasing age. Amyloidosis affects 15% of patients with multiple myeloma cancer.

Amyloidosis can also occur in people with end-stage renal disease on dialysis for a long time (see "dialysis-related amyloidosis" above).

symptoms Amyloidosis
Amyloidosis symptoms are often very mild and did not even look. Symptoms can vary widely depending on where the amyloid proteins accumulate in the body. It is important to note that the symptoms described below may be due to a variety of different health problems. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis of amyloidosis. Common symptoms of amyloidosis can include:

Changes in skin color
Clay-colored stools
Fatigue
feel satiated
Joint pain
Red blood cell count is low (anemia)
Hard to breathe
swelling of the tongue
Tingling and numbness in the legs and feet
Weak hand grip
Weakness
Weight

Cardiac amyloidosis
Accumulation of amyloid in heart can make a stiff heart muscle walls. Amyloid can also make heart muscle weak and affect the heart's electrical rhythm. This condition can cause a lack of blood flow to  your heart. Finally, the heart will no longer be able to pump. If amyloidosis affects the heart, the patient will look like:

Shortness of breath with minimal exertion
Irregular heartbeat
Signs of heart failure, including swelling of the feet and ankles, weakness, fatigue, and nausea,
amyloidosis Kidney

The kidneys filter waste and toxins from the blood. Amyloid deposits in the kidneys make it difficult for the kidneys to perform their duties. When the kidneys are not working properly, and the water will tertimun harmful toxins in the body. If amyloidosis affects the kidneys, then the person will feel:

Signs of kidney failure, including swelling of the feet and ankles and puffiness around the eyes.
High levels of protein in the urine (proteinuria)

Gastrointestinal amyloidosis
Amyloid deposits in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract slows intestinal muscle contractions (peristalsis) to push the food in the intestines. If amyloidosis affects the digestive tract, a person will feel :

Decreased appetite
Diarrhea
Nausea
Stomach ache
Weight loss

amyloidosis Heart
The involvement of the liver can cause liver enlargement, fluid buildup in the body, and abnormal liver function tests.

Amyloid neuropathy
Amyloid accumulation can damage peripheral nerves / peripheral nerves (the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord). Peripheral nerves carry information from the spine (central nervous system) and the body. For example, peripheral nerves will deliver the sensation of pain to your brain jikatangan you or your toes exposed to fire or nails. If amyloidosis affects the nerves, the patient will experience:

balance problems
Problems controlling bowel and small
Sweating problems
Tingling and weakness
A floating sensation when standing up because of a problem with the body's ability to control blood pressure
Amyloidosis can also involve other organs including the lungs, skin, and spleen.

diagnosing Amyloidosis
A thorough physical examination, a detailed and accurate medical history of patients is essential in helping doctors diagnose amyloidosis.

There is no blood test to detect amyloidosis. Advanced laboratory technique called electrophoresis or free light chain test can reveal early evidence of some amyloid protein.

A biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis of amyloidosis and determine the specific type of protein involved in a disease. The tissue samples for biopsy can be taken from abdominal fat, or sometimes the mouth, rectum, or other organs are involved. But biopsy is not always necessary.

Genetic testing will be done if the doctor suspects you have a type of amyloidosis is passed down through families. Treatment for amyloidosis descent different than other types of the disease.

Blood tests, urine, and imaging tests will be done to check the function of the organ.

Amyloidosis treatment
There is no cure for amyloidosis. The doctor will prescribe medication to suppress the development of amyloid protein formation, and to manage your symptoms. If amyloidosis associated with other conditions, then treatment would include targeting the underlying condition.

Specific treatment depends on the type of amyloidosis you have and how many organs are affected.

Sell ​​transplantation with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cells can help eliminate substances that cause the formation of amyloid in patients with primary AL amyloidosis who have no more than two major organs were damaged. Chemotherapy drugs can only be used to treat other patients with primary AL amyloidosis.

Secondary amyloidosis (AA) is treated by controlling the underlying disorder and with a strong anti-inflammatory drugs called steroids, which fight inflammation.

Liver transplantation may stop the disease in those with hereditary amyloidosis.
Heart or kidney transplants may also be recommended.
Other treatments to help relieve the symptoms can be:
Diuretics to remove excess water from the body
Thickener to add fluids to prevent choking on those who have swelling of the tongue
Compression stockings to reduce swelling in the feet or legs
Modification of diet, especially for patients with gastrointestinal amyloidosis

What to Expect?
Amyloidosis can be deadly, especially if it affects the heart or kidneys. Early diagnosis and treatment are very important and can help improve survival. Without treatment, many patients die within two years of diagnosis.

Researchers continue to question why some types of amyloid make people sick and how amyloid formation can be stopped. Studies to investigate new treatment is in progress. If you had amyloidosis, consider asking your doctor inserts into a clinical trial (study of amyloidosis), or search for amyloidosis research on so that you can get involved in it.

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