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Understanding Hepatitis B


The liver has hundreds of functions so as to be one of the most important organs in the human body. Liver function of which is to produce bile that help digest fats, storing carbohydrates, producing compounds that are important in blood clotting, and eliminate toxins from the body.

Humans only have one baby. This organ has a very tough durability. Liver even keep working despite damage and capable of regenerating (improve) as long as no damage really badly.
Hepatitis B
One serious infection that can affect the liver is caused by the hepatitis B virus. Some of the symptoms of hepatitis B include:
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Jaundice (viewed from the skin and the whites of the eyes are yellow).
  • Symptoms are similar to the common cold , such as fatigue, body aches, and headache .
But these symptoms are not immediate and there is even not at all appear. That's why many people are not aware that he had been infected. Incubation is the time between the first virus enters the body until the appearance of the first symptoms of the infection. The incubation period for hepatitis B usually between 1-5 months of exposure to the virus.

Patients with Hepatitis B in Indonesia
Hepatitis B is a global health problem, including Indonesia. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that hepatitis B is responsible for more than 780,000 deaths each year in the world.

In Indonesia alone, the results of the Health Research in 2007 showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B by 9.4%. This means that one in 10 of Indonesia's population infected with Hepatitis B. Unfortunately, only one of the five patients with hepatitis B in Indonesia are aware that they have the disease.

Mode of transmission of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B can be transmitted through blood and body fluids, such as semen and vaginal fluids. The virus disease is much more easily transmitted than HIV. Some of the modes of transmission are:
  • Sexual contact, such as multiple partners and sex without a safety device.
  • Sharing needles. For example, using a syringe that has been contaminated with the blood of patients with hepatitis B.
  • Contact with accidental needle. For example, health workers (paramedics) who often deal with human blood.
  • Mother and baby. Pregnant mother can transmit the disease to her baby during childbirth.
Diagnosis in Hepatitis B
The diagnosis of hepatitis B is done through a blood test. Noteworthy is the detection of HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen). HBsAg is the outer layer of the hepatitis B virus that triggers the reaction of your immune system.

The emergence of a positive result indicates that your liver hepatitis B protein release into the blood. This indicates the presence of infection. In addition to HBsAg test, your doctor may advise you to undergo a more specific, the evaluation of liver function. This check is also done through a blood test to determine the presence of liver damage or not.

Acute and Chronic Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B infection can occur in a short time (acute) or long term (chronic). Hepatitis B virus generally stay in the body for about 30-90 days. This is what is known as acute hepatitis B. Acute infection is commonly experienced by adults. If experiencing acute hepatitis B, your immune system can usually eliminate the virus from the body and you will heal in a few months.

While chronic hepatitis B occurs when the virus stay in the body for more than six months. This type of hepatitis B is more common in infants and children. Children who are infected with the virus at birth are four to five times more likely to suffer from chronic hepatitis B than children infected in infancy. As for adults, 20% of those exposed to the virus will lead to the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. Patients with chronic hepatitis B can transmit the virus even without showing any symptoms.

Cirrhosis is the final stage of chronic hepatitis B. Cirrhosis is a liver condition which has experienced sustained damage and eventually form a wound or scar tissue. This network is different from the healthy liver tissue. In siroris conditions, liver cells has been changed and the network has hardened so that the function of the liver was decreased drastically. One of the five patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis. This complication requires about 8-20 years to develop. It is estimated that approximately 10 percent of patients with cirrhosis eventually undergo liver cancer.

Step Treatment of Hepatitis B
No special steps in the treatment of hepatitis B . The aim of treatment is to reduce symptoms with painkillers as well as ensuring that the patient daily and nutritional balance. While treatment for chronic hepatitis B depends on the severity of infection in the liver. Step treatment of this disease using drugs that serve to:
  • Inhibit virus production.
  • Prevent damage to the liver.
  • Step Preventing the spread of Hepatitis B
Step treatment is to inhibit the spread of chronic hepatitis B and preventing complications , but can not cure the infection. Patients with chronic hepatitis B can still pass it on to others.

Vaccines and Prevention Step Hepatitis B Virus Exposure
Effective measures in the prevention of hepatitis B vaccine. In Indonesia alone, the hepatitis B vaccine, including mandatory vaccines in immunization . The process of vaccination performed three times, that is when the child is born, when children aged one month, and when children aged 3-6 months. But adults of all ages are encouraged to receive the hepatitis B vaccine. This vaccine is also recommended for those at high risk of contracting hepatitis B, such as:
  • People who have lebihĂ‚ than one sexual partner.
  • People who use injecting drugs or having sex with injecting drug users.
  • Health workers (paramedics) risk exposure to hepatitis B virus
  • People who live with people with hepatitis B.
  • Patients with chronic liver disease.
  • Patients with kidney disease.
Examination of hepatitis B also applies to pregnant women. If the mother is suffering from this disease, the baby can receive the vaccine at birth (12 hours after delivery) to prevent transmission from mother to infant. Another step that can be done to reduce the risk of hepatitis B include:
  • Stop or do not use illegal drugs.
  • Avoid sharing the use of items such as toothbrushes, earrings, and razors.
  • Beware when you want body piercing and tattooing.
  • Do not have sex without a safety device unless you are sure your partner does not have hepatitis B or other sexually transmitted diseases.
For Patients with Hepatitis B
Adult hepatitis B patients are generally able to control the virus. They can be healthy again within a few months despite experiencing severe symptoms.

Liver damage is a risk that is owned by chronic hepatitis B patients. Most of them suffered liver damage is very small. But there are also people with chronic hepatitis B who eventually develop cirrhosis and liver cancer sometimes.

Therefore, vaccination is very important as a precautionary measure. Especially if you fall into one of the categories of people at high risk of hepatitis B.

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