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Definition of Bone Cancer


Bone cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the bone. This disease can by children and adults. Bone cancer is divided into two, namely primary and secondary bone cancer. Called primary bone cancer when the cancer appears and grows directly on the bone. While the secondary bone cancer is cancer originating from other parts of the body that spread to the bone. The whole bone in the body can be affected by this disease, but most occur in the leg and arm bones.
Bone Cancer
Here are some of the symptoms of bone cancer, including:
  • Pain. A person affected will feel the pain of bone cancer in the bone are attacked. This pain usually increases gradually and worsen, especially when the bone is moved or when the evenings.
  • Swelling. The area around the affected bone cancer will experience swelling and reddish. Even if swelling occurs near a joint, the joint will be difficult to move.
  • The weakening of the bones. Bone cancer causes bones to become weak or brittle. Even if it is severe, regular fall or minor injury can make a broken bone.
  • The body feels tired.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fever.
  • Sweating, especially at night.
In adults, symptoms of bone pain is sometimes misinterpreted as arthritis. In children and adolescents, sometimes misconstrued as a side effect of bone growth. Should see a doctor if you or your child constantly feel pain in the bones for more than three days.

Causes of bone cancer
The exact cause of bone cancer is not known, but the condition is thought to be due to changes or mutations in the DNA structures that control cell growth so that these cells continue to grow out of control. Stacking these cells then form a tumor that can invade nearby bone structure or even spread to other body parts. Here are some factors that can increase a person's risk of bone cancer.
  • High radiation exposure of a treatment experienced patients, for example radiotherapy.
  • Ever had a history of a type of eye cancer called retinoblastoma as a child.
  • Rapid bone growth at puberty.
  • Paget's disease, a condition that can cause weak bones.
  • Umbilitikus hernia disease since birth. 
Diagnosis of bone cancer
To determine whether a patient is suffering from bone cancer, in addition to asking about symptoms are felt, the doctor needs to do some tests. The types of these tests include:
  • The blood test. This test can determine the presence of bone cancer through changes that occur in the blood. For example, increased levels of alkaline phosphatase enzyme due Another use of the blood test is to ensure that the patient is not suffering from other conditions, such as arthritis or arthritis that also can cause symptoms such as pain in bone cancer.
  • Biopsy. Besides being able to detect the presence of bone cancer, this test can also determine the severity of the disease, if any. A biopsy is done by taking a small sample of bone to further studied in the laboratory. This test is considered as the most accurate way to diagnose bone cancer.
  • X-rays. Through this test can be known whether bone loss experienced by the patient due to cancer or other conditions. In addition to damage to the bone, bone growth is not reasonable due to cancer can also be detected through X-ray scanning.
  • Bone scan. The test is performed by injecting a radioactive substance into the veins. Such materials will be absorbed by the bone. Usually bone problems or abnormal would be more rapid absorption than normal bone. Information about bone obtained through bone scan is usually more detailed than that obtained through X-ray examination.
  • MRI scans. Through this method, the severity of the spread of cancer in the bone can be known. With the help of radio waves and magnetic fields, MRI scans can produce images of bones in more detail.
  • CT scan. This check is performed to find out whether the bone cancer has spread, for example to the lungs. The scan that uses a series of X-rays and computer assistance can produce detailed images of the body parts in 3D.
Treatment of bone cancer
Treatment of bone cancer is very dependent on the severity of the cancer, the location of the cancer, and even the type of cancer itself. However, the main treatment of bone cancer is usually done through a combined operation with other treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Several types of surgery can be done to overcome bone cancer, including:

Surgical removal of the bone. This procedure is usually done if the cancer has not spread beyond the bone. Part of bone or joint infections will be appointed for subsequent cancer is replaced with bone or artificial joints. Surgical removal is also still be applied if the cancer has only recently spread to tissues around the bone.

Amputations. Amputation is usually done if the cancer was not successfully treated by surgical removal of bone or if the bone cancer has spread, for example to the nerves, blood vessels, and skin.
Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment method that involves the administration of a number of drugs. In bone cancer disease, the drugs infused into the blood vessels.

In the case of bone cancer, chemotherapy is usually done prior to surgery with the aim to shrink the cancer that does not need to be amputated, and performed after surgery for cancer has not reappeared. In addition, chemotherapy can also be combined with radiotherapy to be given to patients Ewingâ € ™ s sarcoma or r adiation chemo before surgery. If the bone cancer can no longer be handled in any way, chemotherapy is usually given in order to slow down the symptoms.

The timing of chemotherapy is usually divided into several cycles, with each cycle consisting of a few days. The number of cycles required by patients with bone cancer vary, depending on the type and severity of the disease pathway by them. Each cycle of chemotherapy are usually separated by a lag time of several weeks. The purpose of this provision is a time lag so that patients can recuperate from the effects of chemotherapy.

Some of the side effects of chemotherapy is hair loss, fatigue, mouth sores, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, as well as the weakening of the immune system. Usually these side effects will go away after chemotherapy treatment ended.

Radiotherapy
Methods of radiotherapy performed using radiation to destroy cancer cells. In the case of bone cancer, radiotherapy can be used before or after surgery. This method also can be done to slow down the symptoms of bone cancer in patients who can no longer be treated in any way. Radiotherapy is usually conducted five sessions a week and one session usually lasts about 15 minutes.

Just as chemotherapy, radiotherapy also have side effects. Some of these include fatigue, hair loss, joint pain, nausea, irritation and redness of the skin. Generally, these side effects will disappear after radiotherapy treatment ends.

Opportunities healed bone cancer
Bone cancer that has not spread to other organs or are still localized, it is easier to handle than the bone cancer that has spread or metastasize. It is this factor which will affect the chances of the patient to recover.

According to the study, a person diagnosed with localized osteosarcoma estimated to still have a chance of survival by 60 percent for at least the next 5 years, compared to those diagnosed with metastatic osteosarcoma that only 10 percent chance.

As for the case of bone cancer Ewinga sarcoma who has been diagnosed, the patient terlokalisasinya condition estimated to still have chances of survival by 70 percent for at least the next 5 years compared to patients with metastatic condition that only has a 30 percent chance. Just like osteosarcoma localized, most patients Ewinga sarcoma localized also managed to recover from his illness.

In addition to the spread, how severe the cancerous tissue can also have an impact on the patient the opportunity to recover. According to the study, the odds ratio chondrosarcoma of bone cancer patients live a low stage with high stage disease for at least the next 5 years was 80 percent versus 30 percent.

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