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Definition of Throat Cancer


Throat cancer is a tumor that grows and develops in the throat, around the pharynx, larynx, or tonsils. Just as cancer of the mouth and tongue, most experienced throat cancer patients had squamous cell carcinoma types.  Meanwhile, if based on the location or part attacked, this cancer can be classified into several types. Among others are:
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer (upper part of the throat behind the nose).
  • Cancers of the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat, behind the tongue).
  • Hypopharynx cancer (throat bottom).
  • Cancer of the larynx (voice box).
Throat Cancer
Symptoms of Throat Cancer
Throat cancer symptoms may vary and is not the same for each patient. Some indications are generally perceived by patients include:
  • Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Sound changes.
  • Chronic cough.
  • Sore throat .
  • Ear pain or buzzing.
  • Lumps that do not heal.
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • Swelling of the eyes, jaw, throat, or neck.
Throat cancer symptoms tend to be similar to other health problems so difficult to detect. Therefore, we must remain vigilant and check yourself if you feel certain symptoms. Especially indication that do not get better or worse.

Causes and Risk Factors Throat Cancer
All cancers are the result of mutations in the cells. This mutation triggers uncontrolled cell growth. That's what happened with throat cancer. The cause behind the process of mutation is not known with certainty. But there are several factors that can increase a person's risk for throat cancer, such as age, lifestyle, and medical conditions. Throat cancer risk will increase with age. This cancer usually occurs in people over the age of 60 years. Possibility of throat cancer are also closely linked to an unhealthy lifestyle. Some examples include:
  • Consume tobacco, either in the form of cigarettes or chewing.
  • Consuming excessive alcohol.
  • Consume less fruit and vegetables.
In addition, there are certain medical conditions that could be a trigger factor throat cancer. For example, infection with HPV (human papillomavirus) and gastric acid disease or GERD.

Throat Cancer Diagnosis and Stage
In the early stages of diagnosis, the doctor will ask symptoms, medical history, and perform a physical examination of the patient. If suspected of suffering from throat cancer, a more detailed examination will be recommended to confirm the diagnosis. Further examination type that generally you will live include:
  • Endoscopy or laryngoscopy.
  • Tissue sample or biopsy.
  • Ultrasound, X-ray, CT, MRI, and PET scans. This check is used to determine the incidence of throat cancer.
Knowing the prevalence and stage of the cancer that you suffered will help the doctor to determine treatment measures that will be undertaken. This cancer is divided into stage 1 to stage 4. The explanation is as follows:
  • Stage 1: The tumor is small (7 cm or less) and only attack certain parts of the throat.
  • Stage 2: The tumor is larger but has not spread beyond the throat and / or stain lymph.
  • Stage 3: The cancer has spread to tissues or organs outside but close to the throat and / or stain lymph.
  • Stage 4: The cancer has spread to tissues or organs outside of the throat and / or stain lymph.
Throat Cancer Treatment
Each sufferers may require different treatment. Determining the best method of treatment depends on the age and health condition of the patient, the location of the growth of cancer, and stage of the cancer itself.

Detection and treatment as early as possible is a key element in dealing with all cancers, including cancer of the throat. Some of the measures taken which would generally be undertaken by sufferers include radiotherapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and biologic therapy. Cancer at an advanced stage usually requires a combination of the four methods.

If the cancer is at an early stage, radiotherapy sometimes it is quite effective in addressing it. As for advanced cancer, radiotherapy is done only to reduce the symptoms experienced by the patient.

Radiotherapy is also sometimes combined with chemotherapy because there are some types of chemotherapy drugs that can increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiotherapy process. This combination process will increase the potential side effects of radiotherapy at the same chemotherapy include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, no appetite, and thrush .

Methods of operation for throat cancer had some kind. The doctor will determine which procedure is needed patient based on the stage and location of the cancer growth. The types of surgery include:
  • Surgical removal through endoscopy. This procedure is recommended for early-stage throat cancer.
  • Laringektomi or surgical removal of part or all of the voice box cancer. This operation is performed to deal with small-sized tumors.
  • Faringektomi or removal procedures all or part of the throat.
  • Stain removal procedures neck lymph cancer. This surgery is done if the cancer has spread widely in the neck. This process is also used to check the spread of cancer cells in the lymph stains.
Other treatment step is to biologic therapy drug. Types of drugs commonly used is cetuximab. This process will target weaknesses in cancer cells to inhibit growth.

To maximize the treatment of throat cancer, there are some simple steps that you can do. Among them is to stop smoking and avoid alcohol consumption.

In addition to lowering the effectiveness of methods of treatment, smoking and alcohol consumption may slow the healing process of the body. This habit can also enhance the person's risk for other cancer types.

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