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Paralyzed Understanding the Brain


Cerebral palsy or cerebral palsy is a neurological disease that interfere with or affect coordination and body movement. This condition occurs due to a problem on the part of the cerebrum. Cerebral palsy is one of the most common causes of chronic disability in children.
Brain
The severity of the symptoms of cerebral palsy vary for each sufferer. There are only experiencing mild symptoms, to severe. Usually the symptoms of cerebral palsy will start to be seen during the first three years of a child's life. Here are some of the symptoms of cerebral palsy related to problems of coordination and body movement.
  • Muscle coordination problems.
  • Stiff muscles by reflex is still normal or excessive.
  • Tone muscles become very stiff or very weak.
  • Writhing movements and slow.
  • Uncontrollable movements or tremors.
  • Difficulty in performing precise movements, such as putting an object at a given position.
  • One side of the body looks like is not working, for example, dragging one leg when crawling, or can only achieve something with one hand.
  • Infant motor skills are hampered, for example, crawling or sitting.
  • Inhibition of speech.
  • Abnormal gait, for example, running somewhat squat, legs crossed, or wide open.
  • Difficulty in eating or swallowing.
  • Constantly salivate.
Parts of the body are affected by cerebral palsy vary. There are only about one side of the body, the legs alone, arms, or legs at once arm. In addition to problems of coordination and body movement, paralysis of the brain can also cause some of the symptoms of other neurological disorders, including:
  • Convulsions .
  • Intellectual disability.
  • Mental disorders.
  • Unable to hold urine or urine inconsistencies.
  • Feel pain when touched.
  • Impaired vision and hearing.
See your doctor if you are concerned about your child's development. Doctor or specialist doctor will help identify the problems experienced by the child.

Causes of cerebral palsy
There is a problem in large parts of the brain which controls movement, ability to listen, speak, and learn the causes of cerebral palsy. This problem can occur before or after the baby is born, and is thought to be triggered by the following factors.
  • Infections experienced by the mother during pregnancy that can be transmitted to the fetus. For example chickenpox, rubella , syphilis, toxoplasmosis parasite infections, and cytomegalovirus infection.
  • Disruption of the blood supply that is useful for pe r fetal brain development or also called as fetal stroke.
  • Infection of the brain after birth, for example, severe jaundice and can not be cured, encephalitis, or meningitis.
  • Severe head injury due to falls or other accidents.
  • Lack of oxygen supply to the baby during birth.
  • Premature birth, which is the gestational age less than 37 weeks.
  • Breech birth.
  • The case of twins. Rahim filled simultaneously by more than one baby can cause problems. If the death occurs in one of these babies, then there are opportunities for other babies to be exposed to cerebral palsy.
  • Low birth weight at birth, which is less than 2.5 kilograms.
  • Changes in genes that have a role in brain development.
Diagnosis of cerebral palsy
Detecting cerebral palsy in infants are usually difficult to do. This is because the tendency of infants to suffer from more than one disease and the symptoms can vary in the first years of life. Even in some cases, a diagnosis of cerebral palsy positive results can only be obtained after passing the examination for several months or years, and severity normally only be known after the child at the age of four to five years.

A child suspected of suffering from cerebral palsy, but will be evaluated symptoms and medical history, will also undergo a medical examination Several types of tests are usually used to detect changes in brain structures that cause cerebral palsy, among them:
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG). Through this test brain activity can be monitored with the help of electrodes placed on the scalp.
  • CT scan, is a test that is performed to produce detailed images of the brain with the help of X-rays and computer.
  • MRI Scan. The function of these same tests such as CT scans, but the difference MRI scan uses magnetic and radio waves.
  • Ultrasound, namely brain tissue imaging using sound waves.
  • Blood tests. Through tests conducted in the laboratory, it can be known whether the child has a blood clot which refers to a brain stroke that paralyzed or have metabolic problems and genetics.
In addition through these tests, detection of the symptoms of cerebral palsy, such as intellectual disability, impaired speech, hearing, vision, or movement disorders can also be done by a specialist involved.

Treatment of cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy is a condition that can not be cured. Even so, some types of treatment available today have been able to reduce most of the symptoms. The type of treatment the doctor usually varies, depending on the symptoms experienced by patients with cerebral palsy, one is to use drugs. Medications are usually given to patients who experience muscle stiffness. Several types of drugs are:
  • Diazepam. A drug is usually given to patients who need the treatment paralytic brain reacts quickly and the short-term to relieve their symptoms of stiff muscles. Some possible side effects after taking diazepam is confused, forgotten, lost coordination, dizziness, slurred while speaking, and drowsiness. 
  • Tizanidine and dantrolene. Both drugs are used if diazepam does not succeed in loosening the muscles. However, users should be careful because these drugs could potentially cause liver damage. In addition, other side effects like diazepam.
  • Botulinum toxin, in the form of injectable medicine is given to patients who suffered cerebral palsy rigid in certain muscle or even a few muscles in his body. To be effective, administration of botulinum coupled with therapy, such as physiotherapy or stretching program. Efficacy or effect of botulinum can survive up to a month and a half. In some cases, repeated injections can also be done. Although rare, botulinum can cause dangerous side effects, including shortness of breath and difficulty swallowing. It is advised to immediately go to hospital if side effects appear.
  • Botulinum toxin. These drugs like diazepam, but is used in the long term. Some side effects that may arise from the use of baclofen is lost coordination, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, and drowsiness.
  • Anticholinergic drugs. These drugs can be given to patients experiencing symptoms difficult to control the release of saliva. Anticholinergic works by decreasing the production of saliva in the body.
In addition to drugs, various types of therapy is also needed to cope with the symptoms of cerebral palsy, among them:
  • Fisioterapi. A therapy is done with the guidance of an expert it has two purposes, the first is to prevent muscle movement distance is reduced or lost altogether. And the second goal is to prevent the muscles that are rarely used by the patient became increasingly weak. 
  • Occupational therapy. In this therapy, experts will examine any difficulties experienced by patients daily, such as dressing or going to the toilet. Once the problem is identified, then the experts will help patients overcome these difficulties. This therapy is quite successful in encouraging patient independence.
  • Speech therapy. As the name implies, this therapy is for patients who have symptoms of cerebral palsy have difficulty speaking. In this therapy, the child will be trained to communicate with assistive devices such as a computer or symbols that represent an object.
  • This therapy is aimed biofeedback. therapy in patients who have difficulty controlling saliva. Through this method, the patient will be trained to know the conditions under which they will salivate, once trained to swallow.
Symptoms of cerebral palsy treatment forms the third is with surgery.
  • Orthopedic surgery. If a lame brain causes patients experience pain while moving, the procedure is likely to be recommended. The kind of action that is done for example by fixing problems that occur in the joints and bones by extending tendons or muscles that are too short. In patients who had orthopedic surgery should also undergo physiotherapy so that the effects of these operations can be felt optimally. The surgical procedure can also be applied to address other symptoms of cerebral palsy, such as scoliosis or conditions that make the spine becomes abnormally curved.
  • Operation diversion channel salivary glands. Through this procedure, the salivary duct leading to the front of the mouth changed to astern mouth. This operation is intended for patients who have difficulty controlling their saliva.
One-on-one other symptoms of cerebral palsy are important to address, especially in children, are symptoms of difficulty swallowing or dysphagia. If dysphagia is still relatively mild, it can be dealt with the provision of soft foods. Or if necessary, you can enlist the help of a therapist associated to teach your child the techniques in swallowing food.

If dysphagia is severe, then eat installation tools must be done. This tool is usually shaped like a hose and piped directly into the stomach of patients through the nose, throat, or directly into their abdominal wall through surgery.

Complications of cerebral palsy
Actually, cerebral palsy is not a disease or a condition that develops over time. That is a problem in the brain will not deteriorate as they age. But as growth, problems of physical and emotional stress can be further increased.

Usually the risk of cerebral palsy sufferer of depression will increase when he is an adult. Therapy treatment, the attention of the family, as well as exchange ideas and experiences with fellow sufferers cerebral palsy, is expected to overcome these feelings of depression.

In addition to psychological problems, people with cerebral palsy are also at risk of developing other problems associated with the physical. This complication generally occurs due to limited or difficult patients to be able to move normally and freely. As a result the load, pressure, and energy must be spent patient to perform an activity greater than that experienced by normal people. One of the physical problems experienced by people at risk of cerebral palsy arthritis is osteoarthritis. Therefore if you suffer from cerebral palsy, use mobility aids, such as wheelchairs. In addition to tools, perform physiotherapy on a regular basis can also help.

Complications can also arise if the patient experienced symptoms of cerebral palsy difficulty swallowing food and always salivate. The food is not ingested by either risky entry into the lungs and cause pneumonia. While the release of saliva that are not controlled, it can irritate and cause infection in the area around the mouth, chin, and neck.

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