Educational Psychology

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a. Illustration of educational psychology

Educational psychology is the systematic study of the processes and factors related to education. While education is an ongoing process of growth through learning actions (Whiterington, 1982:10). Of these limits, it can be concluded that educational psychology has a very close relationship with the learning process, even the main field of educational psychology itself is a matter of learning.

In the world of science, educational psychology concentration focuses on learning problems, ie the problems are closely related to the learner. Therefore, it is not surprising that the main goal of education or psychology loyal customers generally are those who work as educators or teachers.

As a subject which is mandatory prospective teachers in Indonesia, educational psychology should indeed controlled by anyone with an interest in educating others, especially teachers. Mastery of educational psychology into pedagogical.

The reason educators are required to master the psychology of education is to make the learning they are able to function as teachers and to create the conditions in which learning can take place effectively. Teachers as people who educate and guide students must know the psyche of others (students) in order to determine the best possible treatment.

Thus, the student is expected to be a faithful and pious man to Almighty God, noble character, personality, independent, advanced, powerful, intelligent, creative, skilled, disciplined, professional work ethic as well as physically and mentally healthy. This is in line with the national education goals MPR II/MPR/1993 NO.

b. History of Educational Psychology

In fact, educational psychology has existed since time immemorial. Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher who lived in 382 BC-322 BC, has compiled a period of child development, the nature of the child according to the period and form of how education should be given, in accordance with those periods. However, this thinking is considered a philosophical idea, not the result of thinking educational psychology.

Educational psychology is a new scientific study recently century. For example, at the end of the 19th century, Ebbinghaus in Europe have examined aspects of memory in the educational process. Then, at the beginning of the 20th century, the French government appointed a psychologist, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon helped by knowing the psychological aspects relating to the causes of the decline in student achievement in those days.

They then construct a test known as the Binet-Simon Intelligence Test. In the United States, a revised form of this test many times to better suit the Americans.

c. Definition of Educational Psychology

Educational psychology is a branch of psychology or psychiatry or study that highlights the educational aspects. In addition to the definition mentioned earlier, there are several definitions or other restrictions relating to the psychology of education. Here are some of them.

According to the American encyclopedia, educational psychology is the science of a more principled in the teaching process, which is involved with the discoveries and apply the principles and ways to improve keefisien in education.

Muhibin Shah (2002) defines educational psychology as a discipline of psychology which investigates the psychological problems that occur in the world of education.
Objectives and Benefits of Educational Psychology

The purpose and benefits of this science in education is to help teachers in developing a better understanding of the education and profession (Moh. Surya, 1972). In another sense, to help solve the problems that are in education including teachers, students, material, method, in the problems of teaching and learning (Chaplin, 1972).

Meanwhile, A. Sudrajat (2008) formulate the benefits of educational psychology that teachers can do the following things.

• Formulate appropriate learning objectives.
• Selecting strategies or teaching methods accordingly.
• Provide guidance or counseling.
• Facilitate and motivate learners.
• Creating a conducive learning climate.
• Interact appropriately with students.
• Assess the learning outcomes are fair.
• Scope of Educational Psychology

Many education experts that provides the scope of educational psychology. One was the opinion Good & Broopy (1997), the scope of educational psychology are as follows.

• The relationship between psychology and teacher.
• Classroom management: the development and socialization of children, leadership and group dynamics, modeling, reward, punishment, extinction. The results of classroom management research, preparation, and implementation of good teaching.
• Unravel learning problems: definition, principles, individual differences in learning, modeling, and design principles of learning and teaching.
• Growth and development in education: principles in the development of physical, cognitive, social and personality, creativity, and its application in education
• Motivation: definition, theory, and its application in education.
• Evaluation of learning: understanding, kind, how to prepare, assessment procedures, monitoring student progress, validiras, and reliability of the use of statistics in the processing of test results.

d. Method of Educational Psychology

There are several methods that are often used in educational psychology research, including:
• Methods of observation
• experiment and test methods
• questionnaire and interview methods
• The scientific method
• differential method
• Clinical Methods
• Activity Educational Psychology

In its application in education, educational psychology may be involved in several activities such as the following.
• Selection of new admissions.
• Planning of education.
• Drafting curriculum.
• Research education.
• Administration of education.
• Selection of subject matter.
• Interaction and learning.
• guidance and counseling services.
• Evaluation of learning.

e. Factors Affecting the Process and Learning Outcomes According Psychology Science Education

In educational psychology, there are two groups of factors (faktos physiological and psychological factors) that may affect the process and outcome belajr learners. To that end, in order to function As with motivator and facilitator educators can played well, so educators and teachers need to know the factors as follows.

1. Physiological Factors

Factors included in the physiological include environmental factors, factors of learning materials, and condition factor of individual subjects or learners. Environmental factors, including the natural and social environment where the course of study.

In the meantime, the learning material is a factor is the suitability of the subject matter given the level of the subject or learners. And no less important, of course instrumental factors, either in the form of hardware or software that can support the achievement of learning objectives.

2. Psychological Factors

Psychological factors memiiki major influence on the process and results of this study are numerous. However, most have the most significant influence on the process and results of this study is the individual's own behavior, especially related to learning behaviors.

There are many things that are still to be discussed in educational psychology. However, that glance overview related to educational psychology Hopefully with the widespread development of the science of psychology and education in Indonesia, can be well applied in education so as to realize quality education. If all power learners and learners have a strong attachment in the psychological quality education is not impossible to achieve.

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