Engineering industry

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a. Definition

Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering with respect to the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of an integral system of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, materials, and processes.

b. Areas of expertise

IN ITB and several universities in Indonesia, Industrial Engineering sciences are classified into three areas of expertise, namely Manufacturing Systems, Industrial Management, and Systems and Techno Industrial Economics.

c. Manufacturing System

Manufacturing System is a system that utilizes industrial engineering approach to improving the quality, productivity, and efficiency of the integral system consisting of people, machines, materials, energy, and information through the design, planning, operation, control, maintenance, and repairs to maintain alignment human and environmental aspects of its work. Types of scientific fields studied in Manufacturing Systems, among others, is Production System, Production Planning and Control, System Modeling, Design of Plant Layout and Ergonomics.

d. Industrial Management

Areas of expertise Industry Management is a field of expertise that utilize industrial engineering approach to the creation and improvement of business value through the system management functions and processes, relying on the primacy of human resources in the face of a dynamic business environment. Types of scientific fields studied in Industrial Management include Financial Management, Quality Management, Innovation Management, Human Resource Management, Marketing Management, and Decision Economics Engineering.

e. Industrial and Techno Economic System

Areas of expertise Industry Systems and Techno-Economics is a field of expertise that utilize industrial engineering approach to improving the competitiveness of the integral system consisting of labor, raw materials, energy, information, technology, and infrastructure to interact with the business community, society, and government. Scientific fields studied in the Industrial Systems and Techno Economic Statistics include Industrial, Logistics Systems, Logic Programming, Operational Research, and Database Systems

f. History of Industrial Engineering in the world

Beginning of Industrial Engineering can be traced from several different sources. Frederick Winslow Taylor is often defined as the Father of Industrial Engineering though the whole idea is not original. Some previous treatise may have influenced the development of Industrial Engineering as the treatise The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith's work, published in 1776; Essay on Population by Thomas Malthus published in 1798; Principles of Political Economy and Taxation by David Ricardo, published in 1817, and Principles of Political Economy by John Stuart Mill, published in 1848. The results of all this work inspired the Classical Liberal understand explanations about the success and limitations of the Industrial Revolution. Adam Smith is a renowned economist of his time. "Economic Science" is a phrase to describe this field in the UK before the industrialization of America emerged.

Another important and inspiring contribution is Charles W. Taylor Babbage. Babbage is a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University. One important contribution was a book called On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers in 1832 which discussed many topics related to manufacturing. Babbage discussed the idea of ​​the Learning Curve (Learning Curve), the division of tasks and how the learning process is affected, and the effect of learning to increased waste. He is also very interested in the method of setting waste. Charles Babbage was the first to advocate building a mechanical computer. He called it "analytical calculating machine", for the purpose of solving complex mathematical problems.

In the United States during the late 19th century developments have occurred that affect the formation of Industrial Engineering. Henry R. Towne emphasize the economic aspects of the work of engineers that is how an engineer would increase their profits? Towne then a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) as do several predecessors in the field of Industrial Engineering. Towne stressed the need to develop a field that focuses on systems manufactur. In Industrial Engineering Handbook says that "ASME is a breeding ground for Industrial Engineering". Towne with Fredrick A. Halsey worked to develop and present a work plan to reduce the waste of the ASME. Plans are aim is to improve the productivity of workers without a negative effect on the cost of production. The plan also suggests that part of the profits can be distributed to employees in the form of incentives.

Henry L. Gantt (also a member of ASME) emphasizes the importance of employee selection and training. He, like Towne and Halsey, presented papers on topics such as cost, employee selection, training, incentive schemes, and scheduling work. He is the creator of the Gantt chart (Gantt chart), which is now a very popular chart used in scheduling work. Until now Gantt chart used in statistics to make accurate predictions. Other diagram types have been developed for scheduling purposes such as Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Mapping (CPM).

History of Industrial Engineering is not complete without mention Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor is probably the pioneer of Industrial Engineering of the most famous. He presented the idea of ​​organizing work using management to all members of ASME. He coined the term "Scientific Management" to describe the methods which he built through empirical studies. Activities, like the others, covering topics such as the organization of work with the management, selection of employees, training, and compensation to all individuals who meet the standards that made the company. Scientific Management has a great effect on the Industrial Revolution, both in the U.S. and outside the U.S..

Gilbreth family is recognized to be the development of the Time and Motion Study (Time and Motion Studies). Frank Bunker Gilbreth and his wife Dr. Lillian M. Gilbreth doing research on the understanding of fatigue (Fatigue), Skill Development, Study of Motion (Motion Studies), and Study Time (Time Studies). Lillian Gilbreth memeliki gelasr Ph.D. in the field of psychology that helped in understanding human problems. Gilbreth family believe that there is one best way ("one best way") to do the job. One of their ideas is a significant basic human movement classification into 17 types, where there is movement there is effective and ineffective. They named Therbligs Table Classification (reverse spelling of the word Gilbreth). Gilbreth concluded that the time to complete an effective movement (effective therblig) shorter but harder to be reduced, and vice versa with a non-effective therbligs. Gilbreth claimed that any form of work can be broken down into simpler forms of employment.

When the United States faces of World War II, the government secretly enroll scientists to examine the planning, production methods, and logistics in the war. These scientists developed a number of techniques for modeling and predicting the optimal solution. Furthermore, when the information is disclosed. Operation Research was born. Much research is still very theoretical and understanding how to use it in the real world does not exist. This is why the gap between the Operations Research (OR) and the engineering profession too wide. only a few companies who swiftly forming Operations Research department and mengkapitalisasikannya.

In 1948 a new community, the American Institute for Industrial Engineers (AIIE), opened for the first time. At this time the Industrial Engineering really is not a place that specialized in corporate structure. During the 1960s and afterward, some colleges began adopting the techniques of operations research and add to the Industrial Engineering curriculum. Now for the first time in Industrial Engineering methods relies on the foundation of the analysis, including other previous empirical methods. New development in mathematics as the optimization of new methods in statistical analysis to help fill the empty hole in Industrial Engineering with a theoretical approach.

Then, the problem of Industrial Engineering to be so large and complex and as developing digital computers. With the digital computer and the ability to store large amounts of data, Industrial Mechanical engineers have a new tool to calculate the problem quickly. Previous computational system takes a weekly and even monthly, but with computers and the development of the sub-program "sub-routines", calculations can be done in minutes and can easily be repeated on the new criteria problem. With the ability to store data, the calculation of the previous system can be saved and compared with the new information. These data make Industrial Engineering be a powerful way to study the system of production and reaskinya when changes.

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