Understanding Light

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Light is a form of wave energy elekromagnetik visible with a wavelength of about 380-750 nm. In the field of physics, light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of either visible or not. Also, light is a package of particles called photons. Both of these definitions is the nature of light shown simultaneously so-called "wave-particle duality". Packets of light called a spectrum then visually perceived by the senses of sight as color. Field studies of light known as optics, is an important research area in modern physics.

The study began with the advent of the era of light classical optics studying optical scale such as: intensity, frequency or wavelength, polarization and phase of light. The properties of light and its interaction with surrounding paraksial approach with geometric such as reflection and refraction, and his physical approach to the optical properties, namely: interference, diffraction, dispersion, polarization. Each study classical optics is called the geometric optics (en: geometrical optics) and physical optics (en: physical optics).

At the height of classical optics, the light is defined as electromagnetic waves and sparked a series of discoveries and ideas, since in 1838 by Michael Faraday to the discovery of cathode rays in 1859 with the black masses radiation theory by Gustav Kirchhoff, in 1877 Ludwig Boltzmann said that the energy status of the physical system can be be discrete, quantum theory as a model of a black mass radiation theory by Max Planck in 1899 with the hypothesis that the irradiated and absorbed energy can be divided into the sum of discrete elements called energy, E.

In 1905, Albert Einstein photoelectric effect experiment, the light that illuminates the atoms to excite electrons jumped out of its orbit. At trial in 1924 by Louis de Broglie showed electron has wave-particle duality of nature, to blaze the theory of wave-particle duality.

Albert Einstein postulated in 1926 made by the photoelectric effect, that light is composed of quanta called photons that have the same duality properties. The work of Albert Einstein and Max Planck Nobel prize respectively in 1921 and 1918 and became the basis of the theory of quantum mechanics developed by many scientists, including Werner Heisenberg, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli, David Hilbert, Roy J. Glauber and others.

This era came to be called the era of modern optics and light is defined as electromagnetic transverse wave duality and the stream of particles called photons. Further development occurred in 1953 with the invention of the maser beam and the laser beam in 1960. The era of modern optics does not necessarily end the era of classical optics, but it introduces the properties of light to another, namely diffusion and scattering.

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