Biography of Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879-18 April 1955) is a theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. He put forward the theory of relativity and also greatly contributed to the development of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and cosmology. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect and "for his services to Theoretical Physics". Having formulated the theory of general relativity, Einstein became famous throughout the world, an unusual achievement for a scientist. In his old age, his fame beyond the fame of all scientists in history, and in popular culture, Einstein has become a byword for intelligence or even genius. His face is one of the most known around the world. In 1999, Einstein was named "Person of the Century" by Time magazine. Its popularity also makes the name "Einstein" is used extensively in advertising and other merchandise, and finally "Albert Einstein" are registered trademarks. To appreciate them, a unit of the photochemical named Einstein, a chemical element named einsteinium, and a named asteroid 2001 Einstein.
1. Youth and university
Einstein was born in Ulm in Württemberg, Germany, about 100 km east of Stuttgart. His father named Hermann Einstein, a salesman feather bed which then undergo an electrochemical works, and his mother was Pauline. They were married in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. They are descendants of Jewish families; Albert schooled in Catholic school and the mother wishes he was given violin lessons. At age five, his father showed him a pocket compass, and Einstein realized that something in space that is "empty" acted upon the needle; he would later describe the experience as one of the most evocative moment in his life. Although he makes and models of mechanical devices as a hobby, he is considered a slow learner, possibly due to dyslexia, shyness, or because the structure of rare and unusual in his brain (examined after his death).
Albert Einstein at the time of his little retarded because his speech appeared very late. Quiet temperament and loves to play alone. Month of November 1981 birth sister named Maja. Until the age of seven years of Albert Einstein like mad and throw things, including his brother.
Interest and passion in the field of physics appear at the age of five. While I was lying weakened by illness, his father presented him with a compass. Albert was fascinated by the magic of small compass, so he made up his mind to open the veil of mystery that surrounds the majesty and grandeur of nature.
Although quiet and do not like to play with his friends, Albert Einstein remained capable of doing well in school. Raportnya good and he became the champion class. In addition to school and to cultivate the science, the activities of Albert is just playing music and a duet with her mother plays the works of Mozart and Bethoveen.
Albert spent his early studies at the ETH (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochscule). At the age of 21 years Albert passed. After graduating, Albert tried to apply for a job as an assistant lecturer, but was rejected. Albert finally got a temporary job as a teacher in high school. Then he got a job at the patent office in Bern. During that Albert still developing the science of physics ..
He later credited to the theory of relativity to this slowness, saying that by pondering space and time than other children, he was able to develop a more developed intellect. Another, more recently, about the mental development is that he suffers from Asperger's Syndrome, a condition associated with autism. Einstein began to study mathematics at the age of twelve years. There are rumors that he failed mathematics in his education, but this is not true; replacement in the assessment to be confused in the following year. Two of his uncle helped to develop interest in the intellectual world at the end of his childhood and early adolescence by providing suggestions and books on science and mathematics. In 1894, following the failure of his father's electrochemical business, the Einsteins moved from Munich to Pavia, Italy (near Milan). Albert stayed behind to finish school, finish a semester before rejoining his family in Pavia. Failure of the liberal arts portion of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zurich) in the following year was a step backward; j by his family sent him to Aarau, Switzerland, to finish high school, where he received a diploma in 1896 , Einstein several times to register at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. The following year he took off his Württemberg citizenship and became not bekewarganegaraan.
In 1898, Einstein met and fell in love with Mileva Maric, a Serb who is a classmate (and friend Nikola Tesla). In 1900, he was granted a teaching by the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule and was accepted as citizens of the Swiss nation bloc in 1901. During this time Einstein discussed his scientific interests with close friends, including Mileva. He and Mileva had a daughter named Lieserl, born in January 1902. Lieserl, at the time, was considered illegitimate because the parents were married.
2. Work and doctorate
Upon graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching job, because his brashness as a young man had apparently irritated most of his professors. Father of a classmate helped him obtain a job as a technical assistant examiner at the Swiss Patent Office dalah 1902. There, Einstein judged the worth of inventors' patent applications for devices that require physical pengatahuan. He also learned to recognize the importance of application compared with a poor explanation, and learn from the director how "to be true". He occasionally rectified their design errors while evaluating the practicality of their work. Einstein married Mileva on January 6, 1903. Einstein's marriage to Mileva, a mathematician, is a personal companion and cleverness; On May 14, 1904, the couple's first child, Hans Albert Einstein, was born. In 1904, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office was made permanent. He earned his doctorate after submitting his thesis "Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen" ("On a new determination of molecular dimensions") in 1905 from the University of Zürich.
Year 1905 was a year full of accomplishments for Albert, because this year he produced brilliant works. Here are the works:
March: papers on the incident radiation ekipartisi applications, this paper is an introduction to the light quantum hypothesis based on Boltzmann statistics. Explanation of the photoelectric effect in this paper that gave him the Nobel prize in 1922.
April: his doctoral dissertation about the new determination of molecular sizes. Einstein earned his PhD from the University of Zurich.
May: his paper on Brownian motion.
June: Paper deals famous, namely the theory of special relativity, Annalen der Physik published under the title Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Kerper (Electrodynamics of moving objects).
September: the continuation of his paper in June that came to the conclusion termahsyurnya formula: E = mc2, which is that the mass of an object (m) is a measure of energy content (E). c is the speed of light in a vacuum (c >> 300 thousand kilometers per second). Have equal mass to energy, a fact which opens the opportunity of developing nuclear power projects in the future. One gram of mass is thus equivalent to the energy that could supply the electricity needs of 3000 homes (powered 900 watt) for a full year, an amount of energy is enormous
In the same year he wrote four articles that provide the foundation of modern physics, without much scientific literature or can he point to many colleagues in science that he can discuss about his theory. Most physicists agree that three papers (on Brownian motion), the photoelectric effect and special relativity) deserved Nobel Prizes. Only the paper on the photoelectric effect would win one. This is ironic, not only because Einstein is far better known for relativity, but also because the photoelectric effect is a quantum phenomenon, and Einstein became free from the way in quantum theory. What makes these papers remarkable is that, in each case, Einstein boldly took an idea from theoretical physics to its logical consequences and managed to explain experimental results that had baffled scientists for decades. He submitted a thesis-thesis to the "Annalen der Physik". They are usually addressed to "Annus Mirabilis Papers" (from Latin: In excellent). Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) plans to celebrate 100 years of the publication of Einstein's work in 1905 as the Year of Physics 2005.
3. Brownian motion
In the first article in 1905 called "On the Motion-Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat-of Small particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", includes research on Brownian motion. Using the kinetic theory of fluids at the time was controversial, he determined that the phenomenon, which still lack a satisfactory explanation after a few decades after his first time he observed, provided empirical evidence (based on observation and experiment) the reality of atoms. It also lent credence to statistical mechanics, which at that time also controversial. Before this paper, atoms were recognized as berguan concept, but physicists and chemists hotly debated whether atoms really a real thing. Einstein's statistical discussion of atomic behavior gave experimentalists a way to count atoms by looking through an ordinary microscope. Wilhelm Ostwald, a leader of the anti-atom school, later told Arnold Sommerfeld that he had converted to Einstein's complete explanation of Brownian motion.
In 1909, Albert Einstein was appointed as a professor at the University of Zurich. In 1915, he completed both his theory of relativity. The highest award for his hard work paid off with a little since he achieved the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics. In addition Albert also developed the theory and quantum field theory together.
In 1933, Albert and his family moved to the United States for fear of his scientific activity - either as teachers or as researchers - disturbed. In 1941, he took the oath as a citizen of the United States. Because of his fame and his sincerity in helping others who struggle, Albert offered the president a second Israel. But this position was rejected because he did not have competence in that area. Finally, on April 18, 1955, Albert Einstein died, leaving major works that have changed world history.
However, Albert was crying bitterly in the liver due to his great work - the general and special theory of relativity - is used as the inspiration to make atom bombs. This bomb is dropped on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II took place.