Biography of Tan Malaka

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Tan Malaka or Sutan Ibrahim Datuk Tan Malaka's degree (born in Pandan Nagari Tower, Suliki, West Sumatra, June 2, 1897 - died in East Java, February 21, 1949 at the age of 51 years [1]) is an activist of the Indonesian nationalist warrior, a leader communists, and politicians who established Murba Party. Militant fighters, radical and revolutionary ideas many birth-weight and plays a major role in the history of Indonesia's independence struggle. Hard-fought and he is known as the legendary revolutionary figure.

He staunchly criticized the government and the Dutch East Indies colonial government of the republic under Sukarno's post-independence Indonesia revolution. Although the communist view, it is also often in conflict with the leadership of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI).

Tan Malaka spent most of his life in exile outside of Indonesia, and is constantly threatened with arrest by the Dutch authorities and their allies. Although it is clearly excluded, Tan Malaka can play an important intellectual role in building a network of international communist movement for anti-colonial movements in Southeast Asia. He declared a "Hero of the national revolution" through parliamentary statutes in a law in 1963.

  • 1. At the age of 16 years, 1912, Tan Malaka sent to the Netherlands.
  • 2. In 1919 he returned to Indonesia and worked as a teacher disebuah plantation in Deli. Social inequality is seen in the plantation, between the workers and landowners inspire radical self Tan Malaka in the young.
  • 3. In 1921, he went to Semarang and met with Semaun and began to plunge into politics
  • 4. When the Communist Party congress 24 to 25 December 1921, Tan Malaka was appointed as head of the party.
  • 5. January 1922 he was arrested and exiled to Kupang.
  • 6. In the March 1922 Tan Malaka was expelled from Indonesia and wander into Berlin, Moscow and the Dutch.

Tan Malaka was the founder of the party Murba, Islam comes from the SI (SI) Jakarta and Semarang. He grew up in a spirit of Islamic modernist movement Kaoem Moeda in West Sumatra.

This figure is strongly suspected as being behind the kidnapping of Sutan Sjahrir June 1946 by a "group of unidentified persons" in Surakarta as a result of differences in the struggle against the Dutch.

In 1921 Tan Malaka had been plunged into the political arena. With the blazing spirit of a poor hut, Tan Malaka many communist youth gathering. This intelligent young man also talked to a lot of Semaun (ISDV representatives) about the revolutionary movement in the Netherlands East Indies. It is also planning an educational organization in the form of PKI members and SI (SI Islam) to develop a system of cadre courses as well as the teachings of communism, communist movements of the action, speaking skills, journalism and expertise to lead the people. But the Dutch government banned the establishment of such courses to take decisive measures for its participants.

Tan Malaka see it intends to establish schools as children of members of the SI for the creation of new cadres. Also with the first reason: gave a lot of the road (to students) to get a livelihood in the capitalist world (math, writing, reading, geography, Dutch, Malay, Javanese and others); second, giving freedom to students to follow their indulgence in the form of associations; third, to improve the lot of the poor. To establish the school, conference room converted into a school SI Semarang. And the school was growing so quickly that the school was becoming increasingly large.

Tan Malaka struggle not only in the effort to educate the people of Indonesia at the time, but also in the movements against injustice as did the workers against the government of the Dutch East Indies via VSTP and strikes, with the leaflets as a propaganda tool aimed at to the people so that people can see the injustice that is received by the workers.

As Tan Malaka in his speech to the workers' All the workers movement to issue a general strike as a statement of sympathy, if later repetition of the failure of the employees laid off will be pushed to fight strongly in the revolutionary movement ".

Tan Malaka struggle with the communist party in the world is clear. He not only has the right to give suggestions and criticism and conduct but also the right to pronounce its veto over the actions of the communist party which carried out the work area. Tan Malaka also must conduct oversight to the base budget, program and tactics of the Comintern (Communist International) and as defined Profintern congresses in Moscow followed by the communist world. As such responsibilities as the representative of the Comintern is heavier than its membership in the Communist Party.

As a leader who is still very young he put a very heavy responsibility on his shoulders. Tan Malaka and some of his friends broke away and then cut ties with the PKI, Sardjono-Alimin-Musso.

1926 uprising that was engineered from the decision that resulted Prambanan suicide for the people of Indonesia national struggle against the invaders at that time. 1926 revolt is only a small commotion turmoil and unrest in several regions in Indonesia. It is easily within a short time can end the Dutch colonialists. As a result, thousands of political fighters were arrested and detained. Some are tortured, some killed and many were exiled to Digoel, Irian Jaya. This incident provided a pretext by the Dutch to capture, hold and dispose of any person against them, though not the PKI. Then the national perjaungan got a very heavy blow and suffered a major setback and paralyzed for years.

Tan Malaka who was abroad at the time, gathered with a few friends in Bangkok. In the capital city of Thailand, along Soebakat and Djamaludddin Tamin, Tan Malaka in June 1927 proclaimed the Republican Party of Indonesia (PARI). Two years earlier, Tan Malaka had written "Toward the Republic of Indonesia". Was pointed out to the fighters and intellectuals in Indonesia in the Netherlands. Publication of the book was the first time in Kowloon, Hong Kong, April 1925.

Prof. Mohammad Yamin, in her paper "Tan Malaka Father of the Republic of Indonesia" commented: "No different than Washington, Jefferson's design prior to its independence of the Republic of the United States achieved or predicted Philippina Rizal Bonifacio before the revolution broke out Philippina ...."

Events of July 3, 1946, preceded by the arrest and detention of Tan Malaka with the leadership of the Union of Struggle, in prison without trial for two and a half years. After the rebellion broke out FDR / PKI in Madison, September 1948 with the leadership of Musso and Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka just released from prison due to the incident.

Outside, after evaluating the situation very badly for the Republic of Indonesia from 1947 Linggajati and Renville Agreement in 1948, which is the fruit of the diplomacy Sutan Syahrir and Prime Minister Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka pioneered the establishment of proletarian Party, 7 November 1948 in Yogyakarta.

In February of 1949 precisely Tan Malaka course rimbanya lost, death is not necessarily his grave in the midst of the struggle with the Guerilla Defence Proclamation in Pethok, Kediri, East Java. But the mystery is finally revealed as well as from the narrative of Harry A. Poeze, a Dutch historian who said that Tan Malaka was shot dead on February 21, 1949 on the orders of Lieutenant Soekotjo sweep Battalion, Division of UB [1].

Publishing Director of the Royal Netherlands Institute for the Study of Caribbean and South East Asia or KITLV, Harry A Poeze re-release of research results, that Tan Malaka troops shot at the slopes of Mount Wilis, precisely in the Village Selopanggung, Cement District, District Karachi on February 21, 1949.

However, by decision of the President of Republic of. 53, signed by President Soekarno March 28, 1963 determined that Tan Malaka was a hero of national independence.

Harry Poeze have discovered the location of the death of Tan Malaka in the East Java is based on a series of interviews conducted in the period 1986 to 2005 with historical actors who are jointly in 1949 by Tan Malaka. With the support of family and support agencies Tan Malaka, being explored in collaboration with Ministry of Social Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia to move his grave to Kalibata Heroes Cemetery. Of course this needs to test for DNA, for example. However, the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Provincial Government of East Java must be done before local people digging sporadically and might find the bones of goats that can be claimed as the framework remains a national hero.

No less than 500 kilometers distance reached thousands of people for two months from Madison to the Pacitan, then to the North, before they, among others Amir Sjarifuddin, was arrested in the border area controlled by the Dutch army. He also found interesting about Soeharto archives. It had been previously known that Suharto came to Madison before the rebellion broke out. Soemarsono told him that the city was safe and that the message was delivered to the government. Poeze found an interesting archive at the National Archives of Indonesia that Suharto had written to the "Paduka Tuan" Djokosoejono Colonel, commander of the army left, so he came to Yogyakarta and resolve this issue. Soeharto wrote "I assure the safety of Pak Djoko". This document is interesting because it was Soeharto took the initiative himself as a mediator in the Madison event. Harry Poeze have discovered the location of the death of Tan Malaka in East Java. The location where the Tan Malaka was ambushed and then shot the stumps Hamlet, Village Selopanggung, at the foot of Mount Wilis.


Madilog a new term in the way of thinking, with evidence linking science and develop the road and the methods appropriate to the cultural roots and veins Indonesia as part of world culture. Evidence and facts are facts of science is proof floor. For philosophy, idealism is the first principal and mind (mind), unity of mind and sensing. The philosophy of materialism consider nature, objects and tangible objective reality around the existing, and the first principal.

For Madilog (Materialism, Dialectics, Logic) the principal and the first is evidence, though not yet be explained in a rational and logical, but if the facts as the foundation of science, there is concrete evidence, even if science can not explain it rationally and not be able to answer the what, why and how.

All the work of Tan Malaka and the problem is based on the condition of Indonesia. Especially the people of Indonesia, the situation and condition of the archipelago and the culture, history and ends with how to direct problem solving. The way the real tradition of Indonesia with the historical background is not a theoretical way of thinking and to reach the Republic of Indonesia has since 1925 he instigated over naar de Republiek Indonesia.

If you read the works of Tan Malaka covering all areas of society, state, political, economic, social, cultural to militarily (Gerpolek-Guerrilla-Politics and Economics, 1948), it will be found Scientifics white thread and the Indonesia-an and threads red independence, a clear consistency in the ideas and struggles.

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