History of the birth of Islam in Indonesia

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Islam is one of the major religions in the world today. Religion is born and developed in the Arab land. Its founder is Muhammad. Religion one is born as a reaction to the low moral at the time. Humans at that time living in a state of low morale and ignorance (ignorance). They are no longer heed the teachings of previous prophets. It causes the human being at its lowest. Idolatry, murder, adultery, and other low action is rampant.

Islam began to be broadcast around the year 612 in Mecca. Due to the spread of this new religion was challenged by its environment, Muhammad then move (migrate) to Medina in 622. From where Islam spread all around the world.

Muhammad established his realm in Medina. His administration was based on the rule of Islam. Muhammad then tried to spread Islam to expand its territory.

After Muhammad died in 632, the spread of Islam followed by the caliphs who appointed Muhammad.

Until the year 750, Islam had been covering the Arabian Peninsula, Palestine, North Africa, Iraq, Syria, Persia, Egypt, Sicily, Spain, Asia Minor, Russia, Afghanistan, and the areas in Central Asia. At this time the ruling was the capital of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus.

In the year 750, defeated the Umayyads and Abbasids who ruled until 1258 with a capital in Baghdad. At this time, not many made the expansion of territory. More concentration on the development of science, culture, and civilization of Islam. Baghdad became the center of trade, culture and science.

After the Abbasid rule, Muslim rule was split. This split resulted in many of the breakaway region. As a result, the spread of Islam carried out on an individual basis. This religion can evolve rapidly because Islam organizes human relationships and the Lord. Islam disseminated to any person without the compulsion to hug him.

Login process and development of Islam in Indonesia

History records that the traders play an important role in the spread of Islamic religion and culture. Indonesia's strategic location of the cause of trade bandarbandar which helped accelerate the spread of it. In addition, another way to contribute is through preaching that made the preacher.

a. The Role of Traders

Just as the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism, the merchants held

important role in the spread of Islam, both outside the trader from Indonesia

Indonesia and the merchants.

The traders come and trade in commercial centers in coastal areas. Malacca is a transit center traders. In addition, the ports around the Indian Ocean and Malacca as Perlak Pasai also visited by the merchants.

They live in these places for a long time to wait for the arrival of monsoons. At this wait, occurs antarpedagang assimilation of various nations and between traders and local residents. There was another activity to introduce the customs, culture and even religion. Not only do the trade, not even occur assimilation through marriage.

Among traders, the traders are Arab, Persian, and Gujarat are generally Muslim. They introduced the Islamic religion and culture to other traders and local residents. So, start there are people who embraced Islam Indonesia. Gradually more and more adherents of Islam. Even then developed township Islamic traders on the coast.

Local residents who have embraced Islam and spread Islam to fellow traders, as well as to relatives of relatives. Finally, Islam began to develop in Indonesia society. In addition, traders and voyagers are also there who are married to locals so was born the family and the children of Islam.

It goes on for years and finally come up an Islamic society, which after a strong end to form an Islamic governance. From there was born the Islamic sultanates of the archipelago.

b. The role of the Indonesia-Bandar Bandar

Bandar is a berth ships or merchant ships transit. Bandar is also a center of commerce, and even used as the residence of the shipping business. As an island nation located in the path of international trade, Indonesia has many airports. These ports have an important role and significance in the process of entry of Islam to Indonesia.

In the ports of these Muslim traders introduced Islam to other traders or to the local population. Thus, the airport into the center of the entrance and spread of Islam to Indonesia. If we look at the geographical center of the royal cities of the character of Islam in general-is located in the coastal estuaries and coastal rivers.

During its development, the ports are generally grown into a town and some have become the kingdom, as Perlak, Samudra Pasai, Palembang, Banten, Sunda Kelapa, Cirebon, Demak, Jepara, Tuban, Gresik, Banjarmasin, Gowa, Ternate, and Tidore. Many leaders dealer who converted to Islam. As a result, many people were later converted to Islam.

The role of ports as a trade center we can see in his footsteps. The merchants in the city has its own settlement determined that placement with the approval of the city authorities, such as in Aceh, there are settlements of the Portuguese, Benggalu Chinese, Gujarati, Arabic, and Pegu.

So also in Metro Manila and the cities of other kingdoms market. From the above description it can be concluded that the cities during growth and development of Islam have characteristics similar including its location on the coast, there is no market, no mosque, no settlements, and there is where the ruler (sultan).

c. The role of the Mayor and Scholars

One way to spread the religion of Islam is a way mendakwah. In addition, as merchants, traders also act as a preacher of Islam. There are also preachers who came together traders with their religious mission. The spread of Islam through the preaching is going by way of the scholars came to the missionary object, using a socio-cultural approach. This pattern is taking the form of acculturation, that use this type of culture is fed by the teachings of Islam in it. In addition, these scholars also established boarding schools as a means of Islamic education.

In Java, the spread of Islam by Walisongo (9 guardian). Trustee is the person who has reached a certain level in draw closer to God. The guardian is close to the palace. These are the people who gave the endorsement of the legitimacy of a person to the throne. They also are the sultan's advisor.

As close to the palace, they were later given the title or Sunan susuhunan (upheld). The nine trustees are as follows.

(1) Sunan Gresik (Maulana Malik Ibrahim). This is the first saint who came to Java in the 13th century and spread Islam in Gresik. Buried in Gresik, East Java.

(2) Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat). Islamic broadcast in Ampel, Surabaya, East Java. He is the designer of the construction of mosques Demak.

(3) Sunan Degrees (Syarifudin). Son of Sunan Ampel. Religious broadcast around Surabaya. A very spirited sunan social.

(4) Sunan Bonang (Makdum Ibrahim). Son of Sunan Ampel. Islamic broadcast in Tuban, Lasem, and Apex. Sunan very wise.

(5) Sunan Kalijaga (Raden Mas Said / Jake Said). Pupils Sunan Bonang. Broadcast Islam in Central Java. A leader, poet, and philosopher. Religious broadcasting by adjusting the local environment.

(6) Sunan Giri (Raden Paku). Islam broadcast outside of Java, the Madurese, Bawean, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku. Religious broadcasting by the method of play.

(7) Festival (Jafar Sodiq). Islam in the Holy broadcast, Central Java. An expert on the art of building. The result is the Holy Mosque and tower.

(8) Sunan Muria (Raden Umar Said). Islam broadcast on the slopes of Mount Muria, Jepara and is located between the Holy, Central Java. Very close to the commoners.

(9) Sunan Gunung Jati (Sharif Hidayatullah). Islamic broadcast in Banten, Sunda Kelapa, and Cirebon. A high-minded leader.

3. When and where Islam Sign Indonesia

History records that early AD, traders from India and China already have trade relations with the people of Indonesia. However, when exactly Islam is present in the archipelago?

The entry of Islam to Indonesia rise to various theories. Although there are several opinions on the arrival of Islam in Indonesia, many historians tend to believe that the entry of Islam into Indonesia in the 7th century by news China's Tang Dynasty. The news was noted that in the 7th century, there is a settlement of the Arab Muslim traders in the village of Baros, the west coast of North Sumatra.

The 13th century AD more points to the growth of Islam along with the growth of Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia. This opinion is based on the record the journeys of Marco Polo who testified that he had stopped at Perlak in 1292 and met with people who have embraced Islam.

The evidence also reinforces this view is the discovery of the tomb of King Samudra Pasai headstone, Sultan Malik al-Saleh that dates to 1297.

If sequenced from west to east, Islam first entered in Perlak, northern Sumatra. This is related to its strategic location Perlak, namely in the Straits of Malacca, international trade sea route from west to east. Next is the kingdom of Samudra Pasai.

In Java, Islam entered via the north coast of Java Island is marked by the discovery of the tomb of Fatimah bint bin Maimun Hibatullah who died in 475 Hijri or 1082 AD in the village of Leran, District Manyar, Gresik. Judging from its name, is a descendant of Fatimah estimated Hibatullah, one of the dynasty in Persia. In addition, in Gresik also found the tomb of Malik Ibrahim, Kashan (a place in Persia), who died in 822 H or 1419 AD Slightly inland, in Mojokerto also found hundreds of graves of ancient Islam. The oldest tomb dates to 1374 AD It is estimated these tombs is the tomb of the Majapahit royal family.

In Kalimantan, Islam entered via Pontianak broadcast by Arab nobleman named Sultan Sharif Rahman in the 18th century. Pawan River upstream, in Ketapang, West Kalimantan found an ancient Muslim cemetery. Number of years in the oldest graves are in 1340 Saka (1418 AD). Thus, Islam has existed before the 15th century and are thought to originate from the Majapahit Majapahit as the shape and style tomb dates to the ancient Javanese. In East Kalimantan, the Kutai Kingdom of Islam coming through which is carried by two people of Minangkabau religious broadcaster named Tuan Tuan Haji Haji Bandang and Tunggangparangan. In South Kalimantan, Islam entered via Banjar kingdom which was broadcast by Dayyan, a preacher (preaching expert) from Demak. In Central Kalimantan, the evidence found on the arrival of Islam mosque in Kotawaringin Ki Gede are labeled with the number in 1434 AD

In Sulawesi, the king and Islam entered via the Gowa-Tallo. This entry of Islam into the Sulawesi is recorded on Lontara Me. According to records, the first king who converted to Islam is Kanjeng Matoaya, the fourth king of Tallo who embraced Islam in 1603. The Islamic religious broadcasters in this area are, among others, from Demak, Tuban, Gresik, Minangkabau, even from the Campa. In Maluku, Islam entered through the north, Ternate, Tidore, Bacan, and Jailolo. Islam in this region is estimated to be broadcast by the four scholars from Iraq, that Sheikh Amin, Mansyur Sheikh, Sheikh Omar, and Sheikh Jacob in the 8th century.

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