Alfred Russel Wallace O.M., F.R.S. (Born January 8, 1823 - died 7 November 1913 at age 90 years) is known as a naturalist, explorer, wanderer, anthropologists and biologists from the United Kingdom. He is famous as the man who proposed a theory of natural selection, which later makes Charles Darwin even more famous than he is with his own theory. He did a lot of field research, which for the first time in the Amazon river in 1846 when he was aged 23 years and then in the archipelago.
When he was collecting various insects of the Amazon expedition. Then the collection he brought home to Europe devoted to new findings from other parts of the world. The insect collection sold and the capital became the starting point of exploration in the Archipelago Wallace. On the way between the years 1848 to 1854, he arrived in Singapore. For eight years later (1854 - 1862) he was exploring various areas of the archipelago. Of exploration, he membukukannya into a note book The Malay Archipelago. During his expedition in the archipelago, estimated he has a distance of not less than 22 500 kilometers, do 60 or 70 separate trips, and collecting specimens of fauna includes 125 660 8050 specimens of birds, 7,500 specimens of skeletons and bones of different animals, 310 specimens of mammals, reptiles and 100 specimens . The rest, reaching 109.7 thousand specimens of insects, including butterflies he likes best.
Habit of recording the trip and save the records by sending to the UK by post European merchant ships, including when stopped at the island of Ternate between the date of January 8, 1858 and March 25, 1858, when he was stricken with malaria and forced myself to write a letter sent to scientists hero, Charles Darwin in England.
In exploring the archipelago on earth he finds an imaginary line that divides the flora and fauna in Indonesia into two major parts. This line later known as the Wallace Line, which on the one part, the forms of flora and fauna still has an relationship with the flora and fauna of Australia and have characteristics very similar. Whereas the others are very similar to the flora and fauna of Asia. He is considered a leading expert in the 19th century in the areas of deployment spesied animals and sometimes known as the Father of Biogeography Evolution, a study of what species, living where and why. He was one of revolutionary thinkers in the 19th century and provide much input to the development of "theory of evolution" as well as one of the founders of the "theory of natural selection". Included are the concepts of diversity of colors in the world fauna, and also the "Wallace effect", a conclusion about how natural selection can contribute to the diversity of fauna.
Letter from Wallace
Ternate for Darwin was then known as the Letter from Ternate. The letter became known for with a paper entitled On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitelty from the Original Type. Of the paper, Wallace suggests thinking about the process of natural selection to maintain a species in the world. Species that can survive is called Wallace as a result of the continuity of the best or the most have the ability to survive will not be extinct.
That's the basic framework of understanding natural selection is put Wallace at the time. Ultimately support the idea that Darwin's theory of evolution popularized through his book The Origin of Species in 1859, one year after writing a paper Wallace. On July 1, 1858, brothers Darwin, Charles Lyell and Joseph Hooker, to engineer a scientific meeting at the Linnean Society and declared Darwin and Wallace as the inventor of the evolutionary basis.
Awards, honors, and memorials
* Some of the awards he received include the Order of Merit (1908), the Royal Society's Royal Medal (1868) and Copley Medal (1908), the Royal Geographical Society's Founder's Medal (1892) and the Linnean Society's Gold Medal (1892) and Darwin -Wallace Medal (1908).
* Selected as the head of the anthropology division of the British Association in 1866.
* Elected as chairman of the Entomological Society ("Entomological Society"), based in London in 1870.
* Elected as chairman of the biology of the British Association in 1876.
* Awarded a civil pension of £ 200 per year, which is a service of Darwin and Huxley to the British government, which was awarded in 1881.
* Selected as a member of the Royal Society in 1893.
* Gaining confidence as a leader of the International Congress of spiritualists (which was meeting in London) in 1898.
* In 1928, a house at Richard Hale School (then named as Hertford Grammar School) was named Wallace. He is a student at Richard Hale School in the years 1828 to 1836.
* On 1 November 1915, a medal engraved with his name there, placed in Westminster Abbey.
* His name is also immortalized as one of the names of the crater on Mars and the Moon. * A research center for biodiversity research in Sarawak named with his name in 2005.