Ali ibn Abi Talib is one of the earliest converts to Islam (assabiqunal awwalun), cousin Rasullullah Saw., And also the last caliph of the Caliphate Kulafaur in the eyes of the Sunni caliphs. But for Shiite Islam, Ali was the first caliph and first imam of Shiite imam 12.
Ali was born in Mecca, Hejaz region, Arabian Peninsula, on the 13th of Rajab. According to historians, Ali was born 10 years before the commencement of the prophethood of Muhammad, about the year 600 AD. Her real name Haydar ibn Abu Talib. However Rasullullah Saw. did not like it and call him Ali, which means having a high degree with Allah.
When Rasullullah Saw. began to spread Islam, Ali was 10 years old. But he believes Rasullullah Saw. and became the first person to Islam from among the children. Her adolescence was spent to study with Ali Rasullullah that youth grow into intelligent, brave, and wise. If Rasullullah Saw. is a repository of knowledge, then Ali is like the key to unlock the warehouse.
When Rasullullah Saw. move, he replaces Rasullullah sleep in his bed so that the people of Quraish who want to kill the prophet be deceived. After the move and live in Medina, Ali married the Prophet with his beloved daughter Fatimah az-Zahra.
Ali not only grown into a smart young man, but also brave in the battlefield. Together Dzulfikar, sword, Ali helped the many victories on many fronts war as the Battle of Badr, Battle of the Trench, and the War of Khaibar.
After the death of Rasullullah, a dispute arises regarding who will be appointed as caliph. Shiites believe Muhammad Ali as the caliph had prepared. But Ali was considered too young for the caliphate. In the end, Abu Bakr became the first caliph. After the murder of Uthman ibn Affan, the Islamic political situation becomes chaotic. On this basis, the son of Zubair and Talhah bin Ubaidillah Awwam urged Ali became caliph shortly. Ali then inducted into a gang, making it the first caliph inducted widely. But political exigencies make Ali must endure an arduous task to complete.
The first civil war within Islam, Siffin War broke out followed by widespread slander surrounding the death of Uthman ibn Affan made the position of Ali as Caliph becomes difficult. He died at the age of 63 years for murder by Abdrrahman bin Muljam, someone coming from the Kharijites (dissenters) currently lead the morning prayers at the Kufa mosque, on the 19th of Ramadan, and Ali breathed his last on the 21st of Ramadan in 40 AH. Ali was buried secretly in Najaf, there are even some reports which claimed that he was buried elsewhere.
The next seat of the caliphate is held for generations by the family of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah with. So ended Kulafaur Rashidun Caliphate.