In the days before Islam developed, the city of Medina called Yathrib, known as a center of trade. Then when the Prophet Muhammad migrated from Mecca, the city was renamed Medina as the center of the development of Islam until he died and was buried there. Furthermore, the city became the center of the Caliphate as the successor to the Prophet Muhammad. There are three caliphs who ruled from the city of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman ibn Affan. During the reign of Ali ibn Abi Talib was moved to Kufa in Iraq due to the political turmoil caused by the killing of Caliph Uthman by the rebels. Furthermore, when the power switch to the Ummaids, the government moved to Damascus and when the government moved to the children Abassiyah, the government moved to Baghdad. At the time of the Prophet Muhammad, a resident of Medina are Moslems and Jews are protected existence. However, because of the betrayal of the people of Medina during the war Ahzab, the Jews were driven out of Medina.
Geographically, the city is flat, surrounded by mountains and rolling hills and desert climates. Highest temperatures ranging from 30 ° C to 45 ° C in the summer, and average temperatures ranging from 10 ° C to 25 ° C.
Of the economic sector, agriculture and plantation sectors are especially palm plantations that have been known since ancient times, the farm should the Arab population and trade coupled with the services sector, especially the pilgrims services include hospitality and lodging businesses.
Besides being known as the city center of the development of Islam. Medina is also a center of Islamic education since the time of Prophet Muhammad SAW. Also many scholars and scholars of Islam that emerged from Medina which are Imam Malik. Currently there are various Jami'ah Medina (University) and other Islamic university colleges.
e. Medina City Virtue
As one of Islam's holiest city, Medina has a number of virtues, namely
1. Place a prioritized mention of his name in the Qur'an.
2. What makes a Madinah land haram (holy) is Allah SWT.
3. Prohibition hunt and prey in Medina.
4. Prohibition cutting trees, pulling and picking up goods scattered.
5. Prohibition took up arms and fought in it.
6. Abjure heresy
7. Allah chose Medina as the Prophet migrated.
8. Allah chose Medina as the Prophet disemayamkannya bodies.
9. Medina cleansed of Shirk.
10. Faith will return to Medina.
11. Medina blessing multiplied.
12. Dajjal can not enter Madina.
13. Medina will not be penetrated by a sense of trepidation against Dajjal.
14. Medina will not be entered by Ta'un plague.
15. Transfer of disease from Madinah to Juhfah.
16. Prohibition killed the snake before it was given a warning for 3 days because of the jinn there were many who embraced Islam and they like to transform into a beast among snakes.
17. Prompts to stay in Medina.
18. Suggestion that died in Medina.
19. The infidels should not enter Madinah.
20. Alim clerical more pious than any other scholars.
21. The soil as a healer (Shifa ')
22. Intercession for those who wait on trial in Medina.
23. Satanic desperate to be worshiped in Medina.
24. Prayer for prayer as Abraham Medina for Mecca.
25. Angels guard until Doomsday.
26. Medina bathed in the day of arrival the Prophet Muhammad.
27. The penalty for those who mendzalimi people of Medina.
28. Worshipping at the Prophet's Mosque doubled the reward.