By: Moh Hatta
AS the opening discourse, it is better to quote the mandate of President Sukarno in commemoration maulid Prophet Muhammad. at Bung Karno Stadium, Senayan, dated August 6, 1963 (Publication No. Secretariat of State. 618/1963).
"Late-afternoon I was taken by the Syrian President al-Kuwatly Sukri to the tomb of Saladin. Kuwatly Then the president asked me, does the President know who is buried here? I said, I know, of course I know. This is Salahuddin, the great warrior, I say. President Kuwatly said, but there is one service that might Salahuddin President Soekarno not know. What is that, I asked. Answers President Kuwatly, Salahuddin is the flame of the spirit of Islam, the fire of the Islamic struggle in a way that commanded Muslims mawlid celebration held annually prophet.
So since Salahuddin every year to commemorate the birth of Islam, and is said by Mr. Mulyadi earlier, also the death of the Prophet Muhammad. maulid prophets warning by Salahuddin used to evoke the spirit of Islam, because at that time the Muslims were fighting to defend itself against attacks from the outside on the Crusades. As strateeg big brothers, even as massapsycholoog big, mean people who know the science of the soul of the common people, every year peringatilah Salahuddin ordered maulid prophet.
As explained in the above mandate Bung Karno, maulid prophet warning for the first time carried out on the initiative of Sultan Salahuddin Yusuf al-Ayyubi (reigned from 1174-1193 BC or 570-590 AH) of Bani Ayyub Dynasty, which in the history of European literature known as "Saladin". Although Salahuddin not Arabs but from the Kurds, the center of his empire was in Qahirah (Cairo), Egypt, and his territory stretches from Egypt to Syria and the Arabian Peninsula.
At that time, the Islamic world was under attack-attack wave after wave of various European nations (France, Germany, UK). This is what is known as the Crusades or The Crusade. In 1099 the European army captured Jerusalem and al-Aqsa Mosque transform into the church! Muslims when it lost the spirit of the struggle (jihad) and the brotherhood (ukhuwah), because it is politically divided in many kingdoms and sultanates, although the Caliph remained one, namely Bani Abbas in Baghdad, as a symbol of spiritual unity.
According to Salahuddin, Muslims fighting spirit to be revived by the love of the people to strengthen their prophet. He urged Muslims around the world to the birth of the Prophet Muhammad., 12 Rabiul Awal, who every year go by without commemorated, celebrated mass today. Actually it is not a pure idea Salahuddin, but the proposal of the law, Muzaffaruddin Gekburi, who became atabeg (sort of regent) in Irbil, northern Syria. To compensate for the rise of warnings Christmas by Christians, often held at his palace Muzaffaruddin maulid warning prophet, but celebrations are local and not every year. The Salahuddin wants mawlid celebration prophets become a tradition for Muslims around the world with the aim of improving morale, not just ordinary birthday celebration.
At first the idea of Salahuddin opposed by the clergy, because since the time of Prophet warning like it was never there. Besides legal holiday by the religious teachings there are only two, namely Eid and Iduladha. However, Salahuddin insisted that the prophet was mawlid celebration activities that enliven the symbols of religion, not a ritual celebration, so can not be considered a prohibited bid `ah. When Salahuddin asked for approval of the Caliph An-Nasir in Baghdad, was the Caliph agreed. So on pilgrimage in Zulhijjah 579 AH (1183 AD), Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubid ruler al-Haramain (two holy land of Mecca and Medina) issued instructions to all the pilgrims, so that if returned to their homeland to the Muslim community immediately menyosialkan wherever they might be, that starting in 580 Hijri (1184 AD) on the 12th Rabiul-Awwal is celebrated as the day of mawlid prophet with a variety of activities that evoke the spirit of Islam.
One of the activities organized by Sultan Salahuddin in maulid prophet warning the first time in 1184 (580 AH) is organizing a writing contest of the Prophet and his praise of the Prophet with the language as beautiful as possible. All scholars and writers are invited to participate in the competition. Winner of the first prize is Shaykh Ja `far al-Barzanji. His work is known as the Book Barzanji until now often read people in the villages on the warning maulid prophet.
Apparently maulid prophet warning Sultan Salahuddin held that a positive result. Muslims face the spirit of the Crusades raged back. Salahuddin managed to gather strength, so that in the year 1187 (583 Hijri) by Saladin captured Jerusalem from the hands of the Europeans, and the al-Aqsa Mosque into a mosque again today.
If we open the pages of history the spread of Islam in Java, the celebration of mawlid prophet by the Wali Songo exploited for propaganda tool with a variety of activities that attract people to say syahadatain (two sentences creed) as a sign of embracing Islam. That is why the celebration of mawlid celebrations Syahadatain called prophets, who by the tongue spoken Sekaten Java.
The two sentences creed is symbolized with two gamelan creation Kalijaga Sunan, and Kiai Kiai Nogowilogo Gunturmadu, which sounded in the courtyard mosque at Demak mawlid celebration prophet. Before beating the two gamelan, people who are new to Islam by saying the first two sentences creed at the gate of "forgiveness" so-called gate (from Arabic ghafura, "He forgave").
In the days of the empire of Mataram, mawlid celebration called Gerebeg Mulud prophet. Gerebeg word meaning "to follow", which follows the Sultan and his princes out of the palace to the mosque to attend the celebration of mawlid prophets, complete with a ceremony means, such as mountains of rice and so on. In addition Gerebeg Mulud, there is also a celebration of Gerebeg Poso (welcome Eid) and Gerebeg Large (welcome Iduladha).
The uniqueness of the tribe of Quraish
The interesting thing for us to examine is why the prophets and apostles of last resort for mankind whom God raised from among the Quraysh tribe in the Arabian Peninsula? The answer to this question is given by God in the Qur'an Surat Quraysh first and second verse, which reads, "Due to the tradition of Quraish tribe. Tradition they wander in the winter and in the summer".
The holy city of Mecca was originally named Baka or Bakkah, as stated in Ali Imran 96. In Arabic, the word has two meanings baka, "tear loose" and "balsam tree". The first meaning relates to gersangnya area so if they did not give hope, and the second meaning related to the number of balsam trees (genus Commiphora) that grow there. Because the letter mim and letters ba equally bilabial (lips), the name Bakkah eventually turned into Makkah.
Due to extremely arid city of Mecca, the Quraysh that city dwellers can not live out of the agrarian sector (agriculture), but must develop the business sector (commerce). Compared to other tribes in the Arabian Peninsula, the tribe of Quraish has a special character, hold any weather! They have a tradition (ilaf) likes to wander both in winter and in summer for trade.
At first, most of the tribe of Quraish against Islam that the Prophet Muhammad. and the followers he had left home emigrate to Madinah. However, eventually all the Quraysh embraced Islam, especially after the Prophet occupy Mecca. Traditions like to wander from the tribe of Quraish was one of the factors which accelerated the spread of Islam. Only a century after the Prophet's death, in the mid-8th century Islamic empire stretching from Spain to Xinjiang.
Apparently already a sunnatullah (divine law) that an idea or teaching will rapidly evolve if disseminated widely by people who like to wander. In the history of our country, the organization Muhammadiyah has a similar experience. In the days of its founder, K.H. Ahmad Dahlan, an organization whose mission is the new born in Yogyakarta in Java. Muhammadiyah soon evolved rapidly throughout the archipelago after propagated by two nomadic tribes, the Minangkabau and Bugis people.
Gersangnya Mecca a purpose other regions, the two superpowers at the time of the Prophet Muhammad., The Romans and the Persians, in no mood to take control of Mecca. Similarly, when in the 19th century and early 20th-century British and French colonial power sharing in the Middle East, the region of Mecca did not they touched. From the time of the Prophet to the present, the Ka'ba (the House of Allah) has never been under the domination of non-Muslim groups.
When Prophet Ibrahim A.S. and his son Prophet Ismail A.S. founded the house of God, which is now the Ka'ba, the Prophet Ibrahim prayed, "My Lord, make this country safe sentosa, and anugerahkanlah provision of fruit to the people who believe them to God and the Hereafter." (Surat Al-Baqarah 126). Prayer of Prophet Ibrahim A.S. is granted by God continuously until today! Although Mecca arid land and do not produce fruit, the pilgrims can see for themselves the fruits of any kind can be encountered in Mecca, ranging from French grapes to bananas Ecuador.
The water was now abundant in Mecca. In addition to the resources that Zamzam pond never dried up, the government of Saudi Arabia to use modern technology to provide clean water from the distillate (distilled) water. With the high technology called flash distillation, pressure lowered so that sea water boils at 50 degrees Celsius, and water vapor which has been separated from salts passed through the tool can condense (condenser) to liquid again. The process is quite cheap for energy saving. In Jeddah desalination plant of this kind produce 50 million liters of clean water per day, and mostly channeled to the city of Mecca for the purposes of the pilgrims.
As the cover blurb, there are three conclusions that should be learned. First, the prophet mawlid celebrations we organized to raise morale and as a propaganda tool. Second, the last prophet and messenger Muhammad. intentionally God raised from the arid city of Mecca, whose inhabitants are fond of wandering, to the effectiveness of the spread of the religion of Allah. Third, God always endows Mecca of food and water are abundant, as well as protecting the holy city from the domination of other groups. Mahabenar God in His word.