Information Communication Technology

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Information and Communication Technology, ICT (English: Information and Communication Technologies; ICT) is an umbrella term that covers all the technical equipment to process and transmit information. ICT includes two aspects: information technology and communication technology. Information technology encompasses all matters relating to process, use as a tool, manipulation, and management of information. While communication technology is everything associated with the use of tools to process and transfer data from one device to another. Therefore, the information technology and communication technology are two inseparable concepts. So the Information and Communication Technology contains the broadest sense any activity related to the processing, manipulation, management, transfer of information among media. The term ICT emerged after the combination of computer technology (both hardware and software) and communications technology in the mid-20th century. The combination of both technologies are rapidly evolving beyond the field of technology. Until the beginning of the 21st century ICT continue to experience a variety of changes and have not seen the point of saturation.

a. History

There are a few milestones of technological development which significantly contribute to the development of ICT today. First, the findings of telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1875. The findings are then developed into a wired communication network provision covering the entire continent of America, and even followed cabling transatlantic communication. The telephone network is the first massive infrastructure built man for global communications. Entering the 20th century, precisely between the years 1910-1920, realized a wireless voice transmission through the first AM radio broadcast. This wireless voice communications were soon booming. Then followed by an audio-visual transmission without wires, in the form of broadcast television in the 1940's. The first electronic computer operation in 1943. Then followed by a stage of miniaturization of electronic components through the invention of the transistor in 1947 and the integrated circuit (integrated electronics) in 1957.

The development of electronic technology, which is the forerunner of the current ICT, get golden moments in the Cold War era. Science and technology competition between the Western bloc (United States) and Eastern Bloc (former Soviet Union) actually spur technological development through the efforts of electronics miniaturization of electronic circuits to control the spacecraft and war machines. Miniaturization of electronic components, through the creation of an integrated circuit, the microprocessor birth peak. Microprocessor that is the 'brain' of computer hardware and continues to evolve today. Rapidly growing telecommunications devices as digital technology replaces analog technology into use. Analog technology begun to show maximum limits pengeksplorasiannya. Digitization of telecommunications equipment and then converging with computer peripheral devices that are beginning to adopt digital technology. Product of this convergence that is currently emerging in the form of mobile phones.

In the telecommunications and computing infrastructure is the content of the content (content) in the form of multimedia obtain the right to develop. The convergence of telecommunications - is multimedia computing that characterizes the 21st century, as the 18th century is characterized by the industrial revolution. When the industrial revolution made the machines instead of 'muscle' man, the digital revolution (due to the convergence of telecommunications - multimedia computing takes place through the implementation of digital technology) creates machines that replace (or at least improve) the 'brains' of man.

b. Application of ICT in Education in Indonesia

Indonesia never use the term telematics (telematics) to mean more or less the same with ICT as we know it today. Encarta Dictionary describes as telecommunication + informatics telematics (telecommunication + informatics) despite earlier word meaning science of data transmission. Processing and distribution of information through telecommunications networks open up many opportunities to be exploited in many areas of human life, including the one in education. The idea of ​​using machine-learning, making the simulation of complex processes, animation processes described very difficult to attract practitioners learning. Moreover, it is likely to serve the learning that is not constrained by time and place can also be facilitated by ICTs. In line with that start popping up various jargon beginning with e, ranging from e-book, e-learning, e-laboratory, e-education, e-library, and so on. The prefix e means that implicitly understood electronics technology based on digital electronics.

The use of ICT in learning in Indonesia has a long history. Initiative organizes educational radio and television education is an attempt to disseminate information to the educational units scattered throughout the archipelago. This is a form of awareness to optimize the utilization of technology to help the process of learning communities. The main drawback of radio and television broadcasts of education is the lack of immediate feedback. Broadcast is the direction of the speaker or facilitator to the learner. Introduction of the computer with its ability to process and present impressions multimedia (text, graphics, images, sound and moving images) provide new opportunities to overcome weaknesses that are not owned radio and television broadcasts. When the TV is only able to provide direction information (especially if the material is a material tayangannya recordings), Internet-based learning technologies provide opportunities to interact both synchronous (real time) or asynchronous (delayed). Internet-based learning enables learning in sync with the main advantage that the learner and the facilitator does not have to be in the same place. Utilization of video conferencing technology that is run by using Internet technology enables learners to be on the go all connected to a computer network. In addition to leading applications like that, some of the other opportunities that are simpler and less expensive can also be developed in line with advances in ICT today.

c. Electronic Books

Electronic book or e-book is one that utilizes computer technology to deliver multimedia information in the form of a compact and dynamic. In an e-book can be integrated impressions sound, graphics, images, animations, and movies so that the information presented is richer than conventional books. Type the e-book is the most simple move beyond conventional books into electronic form displayed by the computer. With this technology, hundreds of books can be stored on a single CD or compact disk (capacity of about 700MB), DVD or digital versatile disk (capacity 4.7 to 8.5 GB) and flash (currently available capacity up to 16 GB). A more complex and require more rigorous designs such as the Encyclopedia Britannica and Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia which is in multimedia format. Multimedia format allows e-book provides not only written information but also sound, images, movies and other multimedia elements. A description of the type of music, for example, can be accompanied by footage of the sound of music so that the user can clearly understand what is meant by the renderer.

d. E-learning

Various definitions can be found for e-learning. Victoria L. Tinio, for example, stated that e-learning include learning at all levels, formal and informal, which uses a computer network (intranet and extranet) for the delivery of teaching materials, interaction, and / or facilitation. For most of the process of learning that takes place with the help of the Internet is often referred to as online learning. Broader definition proposed in the working paper SEAMOLEC, that e-learning is learning through electronic services. Although a variety of definitions but basically agreed that e-learning is learning by using electronic technology as a means of presenting and distributing information. Included in the definition of educational television and radio broadcasts as a form of e-learning.

Although radio and television education is a form of e-learning, it is generally agreed that e-learning reaches peak form after synergize with internet technology. Internet-based learning or web-based learning in its simplest form is a website used to present learning materials. This method enables learners to access learning resources provided by the speakers or facilitators whenever desired. If required can also provide a special mailing list for the learning website that serves as a forum for discussion.

Facilities complete e-learning provided by special software called software or learning management LMS (learning management system). Current running LMS-based Internet technology so it can be accessed from anywhere over the available access to the internet. Facilities provided include the management of students or learners, learning materials management, learning management, including management of learning evaluation and management of communication between learners with a facilitator-facilitators. This facility enables the learning activities are managed in the absence of face-to-face between the parties involved (administrators, facilitators, learners or learners). 'Presence' parties involved represented by e-mail, chat channels, or via video conference.

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