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a. Illustration atmosphere

What do we know about the atmosphere? During school, we learned the lesson that the atmosphere is a layer of gas or air that surrounds the planet, including the planet Earth. This atmospheric layer covering the earth from the surface of planet Earth to far out space. This is because the atmosphere has layers of different gases and have a great distance or different for each layer.

The atmosphere that surrounds the earth will move following the rotation of the Earth on its rotation and being similarly as in moving earth revolution around the sun. Layer of the atmosphere is a mixture of air, gas, dust, and moisture.

b. Benefit for the Earth atmosphere

• The atmosphere is Earth's protective of lacing sky objects such as meteors or asteroids.
• The atmosphere surrounding the Earth is very useful in helping to maintain the stability of the temperature day and night.
• The atmosphere is also useful for absorbing radiation and ultraviolet rays from the sun are very harmful to humans and the living things on earth.
• The atmosphere is created in the form of rainy weather, the heat, the cold, the snow so that there are two seasons in Indonesia, and there are four seasons in the other hemisphere.

c. Characteristics of Atmospheric

• In a study of the atmosphere, we can also determine the characteristics of the atmosphere.
• Atmospheric air shaped sheath that envelops the entire surface of the Earth to space is composed of elements from the gas, dust, and moisture.
• The atmosphere consists of several layers that have different characters and functions in each layer.
• The atmosphere began to envelop the earth starts at an altitude of 0 miles from the Earth's surface up to five hundred and forty miles above the surface bumi.Mengenal Atmospheric Layers

        1. Troposphere

Troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface and the earth. Troposphere is found at altitudes of zero to twelve miles from the Earth's surface. In the troposphere that we can sense weather changes that occur daily such as air pressure, humidity, rain, and heat.

Thick layers of the troposphere is approximately ten kilometers. Layer between the troposphere and the stratosphere is the tropopause layer, known as the boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
In the troposphere it is humans and other creatures on earth can. breathe freely because Troposphere layer contains oxygen. In addition, the atmosphere of this one also containing plenty of water vapor and carbon dioxide is the most compared to other atmospheric layers.

         2. Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second layer contained in the earth's atmosphere. The stratosphere is situated at an altitude of between eighteen to forty-nine kilometers from the Earth's surface. Structure in the stratosphere is less dense when compared to other atmospheric layers.

In the stratospheric ozone layer is found useful to absorb or reduce the effects of UV radiation. With the destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere is caused by damage to the natural and pollution sinarultra violet radiation from the sun will greatly threaten human life and living things on earth.

In the stratosphere there is no water vapor or very little water vapor, clouds, and atmospheric dust. This layer has a temperature colder anyway because of the ozone layer.

         3. Mesosphere

Mesosphere is the third layer of the atmosphere that has a height of between forty-nine and eighty-two miles from the Earth's surface. Lowest temperature of approximately -143 degrees Celsius can be found in the atmosphere of this one.

At the lowest temperature occurred on the atmosphere is there will be a noctilucent cloud (created from ice crystals). Mesosphere layer is a layer of the "shield" Earth from objects falling numbers like meteors and other celestial objects.

At the top of the mesosphere temperature can range -1000 degrees Celsius. Mesosphere also has a layer of air ions or electrically charged and is called the D. Atoms present in the atmosphere of this one will be ionized and capable of emitting short-wave radio.

         4. Thermosphere

The next layer of the atmosphere is a layer of the thermosphere. This layer is a layer called the thermosphere because of an increase in temperature is very high on these layers. Changes in temperature is due to this layer absorbs ultraviolet radiation in bulk and directly.

Ultraviolet radiation resulted in a chemical reaction that produces electricity and charged layer called the ionosphere (capable of reflecting radio waves). Before emerging satellite technology ionesfer the coating is what helps to emit radio waves in the distance. Thermosphere layer is located at a height of eighty-two to eight hundred kilometers of the earth's surface.

          5. Ionosphere

The ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere is created by a chemical reaction arising from the absorption of ultraviolet radiation. Ionospheric layer is also included protective layer of the earth from the brunt of meteors that are moving towards the earth due to the gravitational pull of the earth.

In the ionosphere layer of the atmosphere is a meteor that burned directly then break down into smaller fragments. When the fragments that fall to earth will not be harmful to living things on earth.

         6. Exosphere

The final layer of the Earth's upper atmosphere is a layer of the exosphere. This layer is the outermost layer has a height of between eight hundred to a thousand kilometers above the earth's surface. Layer of the exosphere is the hottest layer because this layer reflects sunlight reflected by dust particles and meteorites. The sunlight reflected by a layer of the exosphere is called zodiakal light.

Exosphere layer is geostationary and interplanetary space and a layer of extremely dangerous because it is a disaster to strike termpat meteor that came from space.

Exosphere layer which is the outermost layer of the atmosphere that surrounds the earth is stretched so widely in space and blend with scattered solar radiation in space. Exosphere layer is composed of hydrogen gas as its main constituent gases.

Solar Twins Due Optical Atmospheric

Ever heard about the twin sun? Actually, when the phenomenon occurs, it does not mean the sun to number more than one and a twin. However, these phenomena are the result of atmospheric optical.

Just as the rainbow of dots resulting from rainwater can refract sunlight so comes the rainbow. So precisely what happened with this twin sun phenomenon. Twin sun or known as sun dogs usually show up when the sun was about two degrees from the observer. Usually two degrees from the observer position occurs when the position of sunrise or sunset position.

Initially, a beam of sunlight will fade slightly visible at the top when the sun was high in the corner. Then, when the sun is at the lowest angle, the longer the light beam will be visible focus and even brighter. Finally, here's a light that looks like the sun is splitting so that the left and right of the sun appears as if two suns.

Atmospheric optical phenomenon caused by sun rarely we experience because at times of sunrise or sunset, the sky is often covered in clouds so that the phenomenon is not clearly visible.

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